Notes_for_Posting_Chapter_41

Notes_for_Posting_Chapter_41 - 1 The Need to Feed:...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 The Need to Feed: Nutrition & Digestion Nutrition & Digestion Topics for the Day 1) Feeding mechanisms and what animals eat 2) Essential nutrients and why you should eat your leafy greens 3) Digestion and absorption ATP ? Chapter 41 All animals are heterotrophs Dependent on a regular supply of food Basic similarities in animal cells lead to basic similarities in nutrition However, different animal physiologies can have different nutritional demands Brooker Fig. 41.2 Overview: Nutrition & Digestion In general, animals fall into three categories based on nutritional demands Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants, algae) Carnivores eat other animals Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter Brooker Fig. 41.2 Overview: Nutrition & Digestion Substrate Feeder Overview: Nutrition & Digestion Adequate diet must satisfy 3 needs:- Fuel for all cellular work (make ATP)- Raw Materials for biosynthesis (building blocks)- Essential nutrients (things the body can not produce) Nutrient any substance consumed by an animal that is needed for: survival, growth, development, tissue repair, or reproduction Absorption small molecules transported from digestive cavity to animals circulatory system Overview: Nutrition & Digestion 2 Depends on environment and locomotor abilities Strategies for obtaining food: 1)Suspension feeding 2)Predators - kill live prey 3)Scavengers scavenge dead animals 4)Grazers 5)Frugivors 6)Fluid feeding lick or suck from plants / animals Strategies for obtaining food: LE 41-2a Baleen Suspension Feeder Fluid Feeder Predator pics Grazer Frugivore Scavenger Nutrition & Digestion Homeostasis Regulation of the Energy Budget Another example of homeostasis Nutrition & Digestion Glucose Regulation Fig. 41.3 1. glucose level rises pancreas secretes insulin into the blood 1. 2. insulin enhances the transport of glucose into cells & stimulates the liver and muscle to store glucose as glycogen 2. 3. as blood glucose drops pancreas releases glucagon (a hormone) which opposes insulin 3. 4. glucagon promotes breakdown of glycogen in the liver to release glucose into the blood 4. 3 Jeopardy Time What kind of regulation is this an example of? A. Feed forward B. Positive feedback C. Negative feedback Jeopardy Time What is the job of insulin? A. Promoting the transport of glucose into cells and stimulating muscle and liver to store glycogen. B. Promoting the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. C. Stimulate hunger Nutrition & Digestion Glucose Regulation Type I Diabetes: body does not produce insulin Type II Diabetes: body does not produce enough insulin or cells do not recognize insulin Caloric Imbalance Undernourishment occurs in animals when their diets are chronically deficient in calories Overnourishment , or obesity, results from excessive intake, with excess stored as fat World Health Organization now recognizes obesity as a major global health problem...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course BIO 20b taught by Professor Dunkin&parker during the Winter '08 term at UCSC.

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Notes_for_Posting_Chapter_41 - 1 The Need to Feed:...

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