251 epidemiology - Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Principles of Disease and Epidemiology • Pathology Study of disease • Etiology Study of the cause of a disease • Pathogenesis Development of disease • Infection Colonization of the body by pathogens • Disease An abnormal state in which the body is not functionally normally • Transient microbiota may be present for days, weeks, or months • Normal microbiota permanently colonize the host • Symbiosis is the relationship between normal microbiota and the host Normal Microbiota and the Host • In commensalism, one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected. • In mutualism, both organisms benefit. • In parasitism, one organism is benefited at the expense of the other. • Some normal microbiota are opportunistic pathogens. Normal Microbiota and the Host: Figure 14.2 • Locations of normal microbiota on and in the human body Normal Microbiota and the Host: • Microbial antagonism is competition between microbes. • Normal microbiota protect the host by: • occupying niches that pathogens might occupy • producing acids • producing bacteriocins • Probiotics are live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect. Normal Microbiota and the Host: • Koch's Postulates are used to prove the cause of an infectious disease. Koch’s Postulates Figure 14.3.1 • Koch's Postulates are used to prove the cause of an infectious disease. Koch’s Postulates Figure 14.3.2 Classifying Infectious Diseases • Symptom A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease • Sign A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease....
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251 epidemiology - Chapter 14 Principles of Disease and...

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