Ch4-cell structure - Prokaryotic Cells Comparing...

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Unformatted text preview: Prokaryotic Cells Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus. Differentiation of Prokaryotes Morphology Chemical composition Nutritional requirements Biochemical activities Source of energy One circular chromosome, not in a membrane No histones No organelles Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission Prokaryote Eukaryote Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane Histones Organelles Polysaccharide cell walls Mitotic spindle Average size: 0.2 -1.0 m 2 - 8 m Basic shapes: Unusual shapes Star-shaped Stella Square Haloarcula Most bacteria are monomorphic A few are pleomorphic Figure 4.5 Pairs: diplococci, diplobacilli Clusters: staphylococci Chains: streptococci, streptobacilli Arrangements Outside cell wall Usually sticky A capsule is neatly organized A slime layer is unorganized & loose Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach Capsules prevent phagocytosis Glycocalyx Figure 4.6a, b Outside cell wall Made of chains of flagellin Attached to a protein hook Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body Flagella Figure 4.8 Flagella Arrangement Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Rotate flagella to run or tumble Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis) Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7) Motile Cells Motile Cells Figure 4.9 Endoflagella In spirochetes Anchored at one end of a cell Rotation causes cell to move Axial Filaments Figure 4.10a Fimbriae allow attachment Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Figure 4.11 Conjugation http://www.microbelibrary.org/microbelibrary/files/ccImage Prevents osmotic lysis Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) Cell Wall Figure 4.6a, b Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) Linked by polypeptides Peptidoglycan Figure 4.13a Gram + Cell Wall Gram - Cell Wall...
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Ch4-cell structure - Prokaryotic Cells Comparing...

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