Microbial genetics - Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics Terminology Genetics Study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated Gene Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein Terminology Genome All of the genetic material in a cell Genomics Molecular study of genomes Genotype Genes of an organism Phenotype Expression of the genes E. coli Figure 8.1a Flow of Genetic Information Figure 8.2 Polymer of nucleotides: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine Double helix associated with proteins "Backbone" is deoxyribose-phosphate Strands held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG Strands are antiparallel DNA Figure 8.4 DNA Figure 8.3 DNA Figure 8.5 DNA is copied by DNA polymerase In the 5 3 direction Initiated by an RNA primer Leading strand synthesized continuously Lagging strand synthesized discontinuously Okazaki fragments RNA primers are removed and Okazaki fragments joined by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase DNA DNA Figure 8.6 DNA replication is semiconservative DNA Figure 8.7 DNA is transcribed to make RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA) Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promotor sequence Transcription proceeds in the 5...
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Microbial genetics - Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics...

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