Microbial genetics - Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics Terminology • Genetics Study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated • Gene Segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein Terminology • Genome All of the genetic material in a cell • Genomics Molecular study of genomes • Genotype Genes of an organism • Phenotype Expression of the genes E. coli Figure 8.1a Flow of Genetic Information Figure 8.2 • Polymer of nucleotides: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine • Double helix associated with proteins • "Backbone" is deoxyribose-phosphate • Strands held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG • Strands are antiparallel DNA Figure 8.4 DNA Figure 8.3 DNA Figure 8.5 • DNA is copied by DNA polymerase • In the 5 ′ → 3 ′ direction • Initiated by an RNA primer • Leading strand synthesized continuously • Lagging strand synthesized discontinuously • Okazaki fragments • RNA primers are removed and Okazaki fragments joined by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase DNA DNA Figure 8.6 • DNA replication is semiconservative DNA Figure 8.7 • DNA is transcribed to make RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA) • Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promotor sequence • Transcription proceeds in the 5...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BIOLOGY 251 taught by Professor Lancebowen during the Fall '10 term at Truckee Meadows Community College.

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Microbial genetics - Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics...

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