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121slide10 - Water Water Water Water The body needs more...

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Unformatted text preview: Water Water Water Water The body needs more water per The day than any other nutrient day One can survive a deficiency of any One other nutrient for months to years other One can only survive One a few days without water few -~2/3rds is intracellular fluid -~2/3 intracellular -1/3rd is extracellular fluid extracellular Water is in our blood too Water PLAY Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid Water Water Water makes up ≈50- 70% of total weight Water is found in Blood vessels Cells Chemical structure of Chemical cells, tissues, organs cells, Body Fluids Body Body fluid is composed of: Water Electrolytes: mineral salts dissolved in water Functions of Water and Fluids in the Body the Transport of nutrients and removal of waste Transport Works as a cleansing agent Participation in chemical reactions Participation Acts as a lubricant (joints, lungs and GI tract) Fluids account for blood volume 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. 4. 5. Blood volume is the amount of fluid in the blood Increased blood volume can cause blood pressure to rise Increased (hypertension) Decreased blood volumes can cause low blood pressure Functions of Water in the Body Functions 6. Cushions sensitive tissues 6. Spinal cord and fetus 7. Temperature regulation Sweating- an air conditioner Sweatingfor the body for Water Balance Water Water intake needs to equal water loss Water content in the body varies: Water retention during menstruation High-salt meal leads to water retention Fluctuation in water weight does not Fluctuation reflect gain or loss of body fat reflect Water Balance Water Electrolytes help regulate fluid balance. Water follows the movement of electrolytes, Water moving to areas where the concentration of electrolytes is high electrolytes Some illnesses that lead to protracted vomiting Some and diarrhea can alter this balance and Water Balance Water When dissolved particles are separated by When a membrane water will flow to the side of higher concentration higher This is how cells This regulate their water content water PLAY PLAY Role of Electrolytes in Water Balance Water Balance Water Electrolytes help regulate fluid balance. Water follows the movement of electrolytes, Water moving to areas where the concentration of electrolytes is high electrolytes Illnesses that lead to vomiting and diarrhea can Illnesses alter this balance alter Water Balance Water Dehydration Loss of water that can be life Loss threatening threatening Water intoxication Several gallons of water in a few Several hours hours Dangerous dilution of body fluids Water Balance Water Thirst lags behind lack of water The FIRST sign of dehydration is thirst Dehydration can lead to DEATH The Color of Urine Can Tell Us About Hydration Status Status Daily Fluid Needs Daily DRI DRI Meets ≈80% of day’s need for Meets water water Men: 13 cups of fluid Men: Women: 9 cups of fluid Sodium and Potassium Sodium Functions Fluid and electrolyte balanceFluid balance ELECTROLYTES ELECTROLYTES Acid-base balance Muscle contraction Nerve impulse transmission- nerve function Maintaining blood pressure Sodium and Potassium Potassium Na+ -extracellular (outside) K+ -intracellular (inside) (inside) Sodium- “table salt” SodiumDeficiency s/s No known human diets lack sodium • Most foods include more salt than is Most needed needed Body absorbs sodium freely Kidneys filter excess sodium into the urine Kidneys will also conserve sodium Kidneys Small sodium losses occur in sweat Hyponatremia Potassium Potassium Deficiency s/s Sudden deaths due to heart failure from: • Fasting • Severe diarrhea • Kwashiorkor- Acute Protein Energy KwashiorkorMalnutrition Malnutrition • Eating disorders • Hypokalemia Recommendations for Sodium and Potassium and Sodium AI: 1500 mg/day UL: 2300 mg/day (1 tsp ) Potassium AI: 4700 mg/day UL: None Sodium Sodium Sodium Intake in Sodium the U.S. the Adults in the Adults U.S. exceed the UL UL Sodium Sodium Food Sources The salt shaker may contribute as little as The 15% of total salt consumed 15% Processed and fast foods are the source Processed of nearly 75% of salt in the U.S. diet of Less processed foods are both lower in Less sodium and higher in potassium sodium Potassium Potassium Potassium intake The typical U.S. diet, provides only ≈50% of The ≈50% the AI the • With such a diet, blood potassium may With remain normal remain • Chronic diseases are more likely to occur Potassium Potassium Sources The richest sources of potassium are The fruits and vegetables (bananas, oranges) fruits • Food processing reduces the Food potassium content of foods potassium Potassium in Foods Potassium Sodium Sodium Sodium and Blood Pressure Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and cerebral hemorrhage and As sodium intake increases, blood As pressure rises pressure As blood pressure rises, the risk of As death from cardiovascular disease increases increases Sodium Sodium Sodium and salt sensitivity Some individuals are more sensitive to the blood Some pressure-raising effects of sodium than others pressure-raising Other individuals are not salt-sensitive In salt-sensitive people, the more salt they eat the In higher their blood pressure higher Sodium and Potassium: Blood Pressure Blood Low potassium intake raises blood pressure High potassium intake appears to both help High prevent and correct hypertension prevent Physical activity also lowers blood pressure Sodium Sodium DASH diet This diet often achieves a lower blood pressure This than restriction of sodium alone than DASH study Greatly increased intake of fruits and vegetables Adequate amounts of nuts, fish, whole grains, Adequate low-fat dairy products Occasional small portions of red meat, butter, and Occasional other high-fat foods and sweets Sodium is greatly reduced Sodium How Does Nutrition How Affect Hypertension? DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop DASH Hypertension) Hypertension) Recommends significant increases in fruit and Recommends vegetable intakes vegetable Increased whole grains Provides 30% of its calories from fat Emphasizes legumes over red meats Restricts sodium ...
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