chap4_1_8 - AAE 439 4 ROCKET NOZZLE PERFORMANCE Ch4 1 AAE...

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Unformatted text preview: AAE 439 4. ROCKET NOZZLE PERFORMANCE Ch4 1 AAE 439 SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEM MI Structures Aerodynamics Thermodynamics Thermochemistry Control Systems Navigation & Control Materials, Etc. I SS ON SPACECRAFT & Its SUBSYSTEMS Rocket Propulsion M0 v = u eqln M Ch4 2 AAE 439 ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEM Form of Energy Thermodynamics Thermochemistry Liquid Rocket Propulsion Propellant BiProp MonoProp Cryo Cold Gas Solid Rocket Propulsion Combustion Fluid Dynamics Contour Design Tankage: Example: Tandem Ox Classical Mechanics Fuel Staged Combustion Cycle Kinetic Energy Ch4 3 AAE 439 Main Components of a LRE Chamber Characteristics: Combustion High pressure High temperature Very low net fluid velocity Gimbal Mount Injector Combustion Chamber Nozzle Nozzle Extension Example: The thrust chamber of the Vulcain 1 engine, (Ariane 5) Exit Characteristics: Flow expands to fill enlarged volume Reduced pressure Reduced temperature Very high fluid velocity Ch4 4 AAE 439 Nozzles for Launch Applications Advanced concepts with altitude adaptation e.g.: Dual-bell nozzle Key requirements: - stable operation on ground - high performance Classical Approach: Extendible nozzle Bell nozzle (e.g. Vulcain, SSME, ...) Plug nozzle ("Aerospike") Ch4 5 AAE 439 Linear Aerospike for X-33 Pictures: NASA, Rocketdyne Ch4 6 AAE 439 Nozzles for Upper Stage Applications Advanced concepts, e.g.: Extendible nozzle Key requirements: - high vacuum performance - low package volume Classical approach: Plug nozzle ("Aerospike") Bell nozzle Expansion-Deflection thrust chamber Ch4 7 AAE 439 Ideal Rocket Assumptions and Approximations: Working Fluid Homogeneous, All species of the working fluid are gaseous, Obeys Perfect Gas Law. No Heat Transfer across walls: flow is adiabatic, q = 0 (12% error). No friction loss and no boundary layer loss (1%). No shocks or discontinuities. Flow is steady and constant. One-dimensional flow (12%): Velocity of exhaust gases is axial. Properties (v, p, T, ) are uniform across any section normal to nozzle axis. Chemical Equilibrium: Combustion chamber Gas composition in nozzle does not change Frozen Flow (0.5%). Ch4 8 ...
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