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02-Basic-MIPS-architecture

02-Basic-MIPS-architecture - Basic MIPS Architecture Today...

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January 27, 2003 ©2001-2003 Howard Huang 1 Basic MIPS Architecture Today we’ll introduce the MIPS processor, which will be our example system for much of this semester. — We present the basic instruction set architecture. — This also involves some discussion of the CPU hardware. This architecture is mostly a superset of the one from CS231, so today’s lecture should also serve as a quick review.
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January 27, 2003 Basic MIPS Architecture 2 Programming and CPUs Programs written in a high-level language like C++ must be compiled using tools like CC or gcc . The result is an executable program file, containing CPU-specific machine language instructions. — These instructions represent functions that can be handled by the processor. — When you run the program, the instructions are loaded into memory and executed by the processor. Thus, a processor’s instruction set is the boundary between software and hardware. High-level program Compiler Software Executable file Control Unit Hardware Control words Datapath
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January 27, 2003 Basic MIPS Architecture 3 Instruction sets An instruction set architecture closely reflects the processor’s design, so different CPUs have different instruction sets. Older processors used complex instruction sets, or CISC architectures. — Many powerful instructions were supported, making the assembly language programmer’s job much easier. — But this meant that the processor was more complex, which made the hardware designer’s life a bloody nightmare. Many new processors use reduced instruction sets, or RISC architectures. — Only relatively simple instructions are available. But with high-level languages and compilers, the impact on programmers is minimal. — On the other hand, the hardware is much easier to design, optimize, and teach in classes. Even most current CISC processors, such as Intel 8086-based chips, are now implemented using a lot of RISC techniques.
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January 27, 2003 Basic MIPS Architecture 4 MIPS MIPS was one of the first RISC architectures. It was started about 20 years ago by John Hennessy , one of the authors of our textbook. The architecture is similar to that of other recent CPU designs, including Sun ’s SPARC , IBM and Motorola ’s PowerPC , and ARM -based processors. MIPS designs are still used in many places today. Silicon Graphics workstations and servers — Various routers from Cisco — Game machines like the Nintendo 64 and Sony Playstation 2 .
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January 27, 2003 Basic MIPS Architecture 5 MIPS: three address, register-to-register MIPS uses three-address instructions for data manipulation. — Each ALU instruction contains a destination and two sources . — For example, an addition instruction (a = b + c) has the form: MIPS is a register-to-register , or load/store , architecture.
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