Unformatted text preview: Basic circuit design and multiplexers
In the first three lectures we learned all the
fundamentals needed for making circuits.
— Truth tables and Boolean expressions
describe functions.
— Expressions can be converted to circuits.
— Boolean algebra and Kmaps help simplify
expressions and circuits.
Today we’ll apply all of these foundations to
work with some larger circuits.
We’ll also begin introducing common circuits
that we’ll be using throughout the summer. June 23, 2003 ©20002003 Howard Huang 1 Designing circuits
The goal in circuit design is to build hardware that solves some problem.
The basic approach is to express the solution as a Boolean function, which
can then be converted to a circuit.
1.
2.
3.
4. Figure out how many inputs and outputs you need.
Describe the function as a truth table or a Boolean expression.
Find a simplified Boolean expression for the function.
Build the circuit based on your simplified expression. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 2 Example: comparing 2bit numbers
Let’s design a circuit that compares two 2bit numbers, A and B. There
are three possible results: A > B, A = B or A < B.
We will represent the results using three separate outputs.
— G (“Greater”) should be 1 only when A > B.
— E (“Equal”) should be 1 only when A = B.
— L (“Lesser”) should be 1 only when A < B.
Make sure you understand the problem!
— Inputs A and B will be 00, 01, 10, or 11 (0, 1, 2 or 3 in decimal).
— For any inputs A and B, exactly one of the three outputs will be 1. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 3 Step 1: How many inputs and outputs?
How many inputs and outputs will this circuit have?
— Two 2bit numbers means a total of four inputs. Let’s say the first
number consists of bits called A1 and A0 (from left to right), while
second number has bits B1 and B0.
— The problem specifies three outputs: G, E and L.
Here is a block diagram that shows the inputs and outputs explicitly. This is like a function header or prototype in programs, which lists the
inputs and outputs of a function.
Now the hard part is to design the circuitry that goes inside the box. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 4 Step 2: Functional specification
For this problem, it’s probably easiest
to start with a truth table. This way we
can explicitly show the relationship (>,
=, <) between the inputs.
A fourinput function has a sixteenrow
truth table. For convenience, the rows
are in binary numeric order from 0000
to 1111 for A1, A0, B1 and B0.
For example, 01 < 10, so the sixth row
of the truth table (corresponding to
inputs A=01 and B=10) shows that
output L=1, while G and E are both 0. June 23, 2003 A1 A0 B1
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1 Basic circuit design and multiplexers B0
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1 G
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0 E
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0 5 Step 3: Simplified Boolean expressions
Let’s use Kmaps to simplify our circuit. There are three functions (each
with the same inputs A1 A0 B1 B0), so we need three Kmaps.
B1 B1 B1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
A1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 A0
A1 A0 B0 B0 G(A1,A0,B1,B0) =
A1 A0 B0’ +
A0 B1’B0’ +
A1 B1’ E(A1,A0,B1,B0) =
A1’A0’B1’B0’ +
A1’A0 B1’B0 +
A1 A0 B1 B0 +
A1 A0’B1 B0’ June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers A1 A0 B0 L(A1,A0,B1,B0) =
A1’A0’B0 +
A0’B1 B0 +
A1’B1 6 Step 4: Drawing the circuits
G = A1 A0 B0’ + A0 B1’B0’ + A1 B1’
E = A1’A0’B1’B0’ + A1’A0 B1’B0 + A1 A0 B1 B0 + A1 A0’B1 B0’
L = A1’A0’B0 + A0’B1 B0 + A1’B1 LogicWorks has gates
with inverted inputs
(the small bubbles) for
clearer diagrams. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 7 Testing this in LogicWorks
In LogicWorks, binary switches provide inputs to your circuit, and binary
probes display the outputs.
probe switches June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 8 Circuit design issues
We had to find a suitable data representation for the inputs and outputs.
— The inputs were just twobit binary numbers.
— We used three outputs, one for each possibility of the numbers being
greater than, equal to, or less than each other. This is called a “one
out of three” code.
Kmaps have advantages but also limitations.
— Our circuits are relatively simple twolevel implementations.
— But E(A1,A0,B1,B0) couldn’t be simplified at all via Kmaps. Could we
do better using Boolean algebra?
Our circuit isn’t very extensible.
— We used a bruteforce approach, listing all inputs and outputs. This
makes it hard to extend our circuit to compare larger numbers.
— We’ll have a better solution after we talk about computer arithmetic.
There are always many possible ways to design a circuit! June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 9 Multiplexers
Let’s think about building another circuit, a multiplexer.
In the old days, several machines could share an I/O device with a switch. The switch allows one computer’s output to go to the printer’s input.
June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 10 A 2to1 multiplexer
Here is the circuit analog of that printer switch. This is a 2to1 multiplexer, or mux.
— There are two data inputs D0 and D1, and a select input called S.
— There is one output named Q.
The multiplexer routes one of its data inputs (D0 or D1) to the output Q,
based on the value of S.
— If S=0, the output will be D0.
— If S=1, the output will be D1. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 11 Building a multiplexer
Here is a truth table for the multiplexer, based on
our description from the previous page:
The multiplexer routes one of its data
inputs (D0 or D1) to the output Q, based
on the value of S.
— If S=0, the output will be D0.
— If S=1, the output will be D1.
You can then find an MSP for the mux output Q. S D1 D0 Q 0
0
0
0 0
0
1
1 0
1
0
1 0
1
0
1 1
1
1
1 0
0
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1 0
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1 0
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1 Q = S’D0 + S D1
Note that this corresponds closely to our English
specification above—sometimes you can derive an
expression without first making a truth table. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 12 Multiplexer circuit diagram
Here is an implementation of a 2to1 multiplexer. Q = S’D0 + S D1
Remember that a minimal sum of products expression leads to a minimal
twolevel circuit. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 13 Blocks, abstraction and modularity
Multiplexers are common enough that we often want to treat them as
abstract units or black boxes, as symbolized by our block diagrams.
— Block symbols make circuit diagrams simpler, by hiding the internal
implementation details. You can use a device without knowing how
it’s designed, as long as you know what it does.
— Different multiplexer implementations should be interchangeable.
— Circuit blocks also aid hardware reuse, since you don’t have to keep
building a multiplexer from scratch every time you need one.
These blocks are similar to functions in programming languages! June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 14 Enable inputs
Many devices have an additional enable input,
which “activates” or “deactivates” the device.
We could design a 2to1 multiplexer with an
enable input that’s used as follows.
— EN=0 disables the multiplexer, which forces
the output to be 0. (It does not turn off the
multiplexer.)
— EN=1 enables the multiplexer, and it works
as specified earlier.
Enable inputs are especially useful in combining
smaller muxes together to make larger ones, as
we’ll see later today. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers EN S D1 D0 Q 0
0
0
0
0
0
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0 0
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1 0
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15 Truth table abbreviations
EN S D1 D0 0
0
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0 0
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1 0
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1 June 23, 2003 Q Notice that when EN=0, then Q is always 0,
regardless of what S, D1 and D0 are set to.
We can shorten the truth table by including Xs
in the input variable columns, as shown on the
bottom right. EN S D1 D0 0 x x x 0 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 0
0
0
0
1
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1 0
0
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1 Basic circuit design and multiplexers Q 16 Another abbr. 4 U
Also, when EN=1 notice that if S=0 then Q=D0, but if S=1 then Q=D1.
Another way to abbreviate a truth table is to list input variables in the
output columns, as shown on the right.
EN S D1 D0 Q 0 x x x 0 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 0
0
0
0
1
1
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1 0
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1 0
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1 0
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1 EN S Q 0 x 0 1
1 0
1 D0
D1 This final version of the 2to1 multiplexer truth table is much clearer,
and matches the equation Q = S’D0 + S D1 very closely.
June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 17 A KVM switch
This KVM switch allows four computers to share a single keyboard, video
monitor, and mouse. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 18 A 4to1 multiplexer
Here is a block diagram and abbreviated truth table for a 4to1 mux,
which directs one of four different inputs to the single output line.
— There are four data inputs, so we need two bits, S1 and S0, for the
mux selection input.
— LogicWorks multiplexers have activelow enable inputs, so the mux
always outputs 1 when EN’ = 1. This is denoted on the block symbol
with a bubble in front of EN.
EN’ S1 S0 Q 0
0
0
0 0
0
1
1 0
1
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1 D0
D1
D2
D3 1 x x 1 Q = S1’S0’D0 + S1’S0 D1 + S1 S0’D2 + S1 S0 D3 June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 19 A 4to1 multiplexer implementation
Again we have a minimal sum of products expression, which leads to a
minimal twolevel circuit implementation. Q = S1’S0’D0 + S1’S0 D1 + S1 S0’D2 + S1 S0 D3
June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 20 2nto1 multiplexers
You can make even larger multiplexers, following the same pattern.
A 2nto1 multiplexer routes one of 2n input lines to the output line.
— There are 2n data inputs, so there must also be n select inputs.
— The output is a single bit.
Here is an 8to1 multiplexer, probably the biggest we’ll see in this class. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 21 Example: addition
Multiplexers can sometimes make circuit design easier.
As an example, let’s make a circuit to add three 1bit inputs X, Y and Z.
We’ll need two bits to represent the total.
— The bits will be called C and S, standing for “carry” and “sum.”
— These are two separate functions of the inputs X, Y and Z.
A truth table and sum of minterm equations for C and S are shown below.
X 0 + 1 + 1 = 10 1 + 1 + 1 = 11
June 23, 2003 Y Z C S 0
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1 C(X,Y,Z) = Σm(3,5,6,7)
S(X,Y,Z) = Σm(1,2,4,7) Basic circuit design and multiplexers 22 Implementing functions with multiplexers
We could implement a function of n variables with an nto1 multiplexer.
— The mux select inputs correspond to the function’s input variables,
and are used to select one row of the truth table.
— Each mux data input corresponds to one output from the truth table.
We connect 1 to data input Di for each function minterm mi, and we
connect 0 to the other data inputs.
For example, here is the carry function, C(X,Y,Z) = Σm(3,5,6,7).
X Z C 0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
June 23, 2003 Y
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1 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 23 Partitioning the truth table
We can actually implement C(X,Y,Z) = Σm(3,5,6,7)
with just a 4to1 mux, instead of an 8to1.
— Instead of using three variables to select one row
of the truth table, we’ll use two variables to pick
a pair of rows in the table.
— The multiplexer data inputs will be functions of
the remaining variable, which distinguish between
the rows in each pair.
First, we can divide the rows of our truth table into
pairs, as shown on the right. X and Y are constant
within each pair of rows, so C is a function of Z only.
— When XY=00, C=0
— When XY=01, C=Z
— When XY=10, C=Z
— When XY=11, C=1 June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers X Y Z C 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 0
1 1
1 0
0 0
1 0
1 1
1 1
1 0
1 1
1 24 A more efficient adder
All that’s left is setting the multiplexer inputs.
— The two input variables X and Y will be connected to select inputs S1
and S0 of our 4to1 multiplexer.
— The expressions for C(Z) are then connected to the data inputs D0D3
of the multiplexer.
X Y Z C 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 When XY=00, C=0 0
0 1
1 0
1 0
1 When XY=01, C=Z 1
1 0
0 0
1 0
1 When XY=10, C=Z 1
1 1
1 0
1 1
1 When XY=11, C=1 June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 25 Verifying our adder
Don’t believe that this works? Start with the equation
for a 4to1 multiplexer from earlier in the lecture.
Q = S1’S0’D0 + S1’S0 D1 + S1 S0’D2 + S1 S0 D3
Then just plug in the actual inputs to our circuit, as
shown again on the right: S1S0 = XY, D3 = 1, D2 = Z,
D1 = Z, and D0 = 0.
C=
=
=
= X’Y’•0 + X’YZ + XY’Z + XY•1
X’YZ + XY’Z + XY
X’YZ + XY’Z + XY(Z’ + Z)
X’YZ + XY’Z + XYZ’ + XYZ So the multiplexer output really is the carry function,
C(X,Y,Z) = Σm(3,5,6,7). June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 26 Multiplexerbased sum
Here’s the same thing for the sum function, S(X,Y,Z) = Σm(1,2,4,7).
X Y Z S 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
1 When XY=00, S=Z 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
0 When XY=01, S=Z’ 1
1 0
0 0
1 1
0 When XY=10, S=Z’ 1
1 1
1 0
1 0
1 When XY=11, S=Z Again, we can show that this is a correct implementation.
Q = S1’S0’D0 + S1’S0 D1 + S1 S0’D2 + S1 S0 D3
= X’Y’Z + X’YZ’ + XY’Z’ + XYZ
= Σm(1,2,4,7)
June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 27 Dual multiplexers
A dual 4to1 mux allows you to select from one of four 2bit data inputs.
The Mux4×2 T.S. device in LogicWorks is shown here.
— The two output bits are 2Q 1Q, and S1S0 select a pair of inputs.
— LogicWorks labels the xth bit of data input y as xDy. EN’ S0 2Q 1Q 0
0
0
0 0
0
1
1 0
1
0
1 2D0
2D1
2D2
2D3 1D0
1D1
1D2
1D3 1 June 23, 2003 S1 x x 1 1 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 28 Dual muxes in more detail
You could build a dual 4to1 mux from
its truth table and our familiar circuit
design techniques.
It’s also possible to combine smaller
muxes together to form larger ones.
You can build the dual 4to1 mux just
by using two 4to1 muxes.
— The two 4to1 multiplexers share
the same EN’, S1 and S0 signals.
— Each smaller mux produces one bit
of the twobit output 2Q 1Q.
This kind of hierarchical design is very
common in computer architecture. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 29 Dual multiplexerbased adder
We can use this dual 4to1 multiplexer to implement our adder, which
produces a twobit output consisting of C and S. That KVM switch from earlier is really a “tri 4to1 multiplexer,” since it
selects from four sets of three signals (keyboard, video and mouse). June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 30 Summary
Today we began designing circuits!
— Starting from a problem description, we came up with a truth table
to show all possible inputs and outputs.
— Then we built the circuit using primitive gates or multiplexers.
A 2nto1 multiplexer routes one of 2n inputs to a single output line.
— Muxes are a good example of our circuit design techniques.
— They also illustrate abstraction and modularity in hardware design.
— We saw some variations such as activelow and dual multiplexers.
Tomorrow we’ll present another commonlyused device and show how it
can also be used in larger circuits. June 23, 2003 Basic circuit design and multiplexers 31 ...
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 Fall '09
 howardhuang
 Boolean Algebra, Boolean function, Basic circuit design

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