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Lecture14 - /28/11 Background reading Berg et al Pages...

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Lecture 14 10/28/11 Background reading: Berg, et al: Pages 220- -222 224 – 230 Garrett and Grisham: Pages 405 - 413 Outline: Enzymes – basic concepts Enzyme-substrate complex Advantages of enzymes as catalysts Enzyme kinetics Effect of temperature Effect of pH Effect of enzyme concentration Effect of substrate concentration
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Enzymes – Basic concepts A large number of proteins produced by the cell function as enzymes that catalyze the numerous reactions necessary for the maintenance, growth and reproduction of the living organism. A B By convention we refer to the reactants of enzyme- catalyzed reactions as substrates . S P A reaction occurs because certain fractions of A possess the energy to attain an activated state (Transition state) in which a chemical bond may be made or broken. The rate of the reaction is proportional to the number of molecules entering this transition state. Can increase the rate by increasing the temperature or by adding catalysts that can accelerate the reaction by lowering the free energy of activation. They do this by combining with the reactants to produce a transition state with less free energy than that of the uncatalyzed reaction.
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