Final Exam Musicology Notes - FINAL EXAM MUSICOLOGY NOTES...

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FINAL EXAM MUSICOLOGY NOTES 3/7/11 19C ART SONG Lied (plural, Lieder ) = “song” in German, transformed in 19c Schubert (1797-1828) Before Schubert, Lied was sociable activity for amateurs seen as expression of primeval purity, naturalness (J.J. Rousseau, 1712-1778) to be simple, folk-like in form and style (strophic settings, simple tune and harmony) With Schubert, Lied became more flexible in musical expression more elaborate in melody and accompaniment more serious , Romantic, elevated in poetic content (better poetry: Goethe, Schiller) ex. Schubert, “Gretchen am Spinnrade” (1814, from Goethe’s Faust , act 1) Schubert, “Erikonig” (ballad by Goethe) Ballads mixed narration, dialogue, lyrical reflection, dramatic (often horrendous) events Schubert’s setting emphasizes threatening setting 4 distinct “characters” human vs. supernatural shock ending To create virtual operatic scene. Durchkomponiert (through-composed), not strophic Accpt figure conveys overall mood of horror and urgency (hoofbeats?) Distinct key areas and transitions (as in sonata) Narrator’s speeches in minor tonic Erlking “speaks” in major Dialogues of father and son modulate; they change Dramatic return to tonic 3/9/11 Schubert’s song cycles: The Lovely Miller-girl (20 songs) The Winter’s Journey (24 songs) Both deal w/ unrequited love of outcast wanderer, at home nowhere. SCHUMANN Succeeded Schubert; lied as psychologist, dramatic interpretation of poetry Strong literary background 1840 “song year” incl. Dichterliebe (Poet’s Love) to poetry by Heine (1797-1856), the master of irony o 16 poems of unrequited love o Each poem a complex, elusive psychological image o Piano plays crucial role 19C PIANO PIECE Piano improved in 1820s
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Felt-covered hammers (instead of leather) Metal frame (instead of wood) Double escapement action (swifter key response) Louder, faster, more “singing” tone and delicate shading, sharper contrasts. Composers took advantage Piano sonatas out, lyric pieces in. Lyric pieces featured Compact proportions (usually not sonata form) “vocal “ melodies and atmospheric accompaniment Frequent literary inspiration Titles suggest improvisation: impromptu, fantasy, musical moment, caprice, rhapsody; or vagueness: prelude, intermezzo Many pieces inspired by “exotic” dances: ecossaise, tarantella, mazurka, polonaise, polka, gypsy (Hungarian) dances. Etudes (study pieces) – technical display w/ poetic content 3/11/11 CHOPIN (1810-1849) Born near Warsaw, child prodigy, recitalist and teacher in Paris Texture homophonic Innovative harmony (undermines or ignores I-V polarity of classicism) Tempo rubato Exx. Prelude in E minor (the aer song), Mazurka in A minor (the bittersweet dance) PROGRAM MUSIC Machlis definition: “instrumental music endowed with literature or pictorial associations,
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Final Exam Musicology Notes - FINAL EXAM MUSICOLOGY NOTES...

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