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Unformatted text preview: 1.31.11 Genre : not synonymous with form- The Baroque Era is dated from the end of the 16 th century to the beginning of the 18 th century—or around 1750 with the death of JS Bach age of rampant “emotionalism” (Descartes, Newton) and “rationalism” emotionalism: tension, dynamism, contrast, theatrically Ex 1) Palestrina, “pope Marcellus” Mass, Gloria. Smooth, fluent, diatonic, careful handling of dissonance; a model of counterpoint Gesualdo, “Moro, Iasso” (madrigal, love poetry). Dissonance, harmonic surprises. Gesualdo is more passionate—but both use equal voiced polyphony (same phrase repeated but differently, like with dif emotions/sounds/beats) aka often times, there was confusion baroque-ers strayed away from polyphony; late 16 th century progressives favored monody Monody : solo song w/ continuous bass line (basso continuo) from which simple accpt (vzf?) realized. Contour and rhythm of vocal melody imitate oratocial declamation of text (recitative style)-Ca. 1600, recitative style becomes basis of new genre: drama per musica—ex. Opera-1 st master was Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643): Orfeo (1607): the mythical musician Coronation of Poppea- 1642: different because: Recitative no longer expressive high point Characters from roman history (not Greek myth) No ideal characters 2.2.11 2.2.11 extracredit question on page wha? Baroque Concerto: emerged in early 18c as first standardized genre of specifically orchestral music Basic idea: interplay, (“friendly competition”) of contrasting elements. Concertrato (concerted) style Two standard scorings: Concerto grosso: concertino vs tutti (tutti means everybody , ex: tutti gum = all flavors) Solo concerto: solo instrument vs tutti In solo concerto: 3 movements, F-S-F (fast-slow-fast) Fast movements in ritomello form: R a R b R c ….. R “Division of labor” between tuttis (R) and solos: Ritornellos present memorable themes, usually begin and end in same key. UNITY Solos present virtuoso passagework and modulate. VARIETY Bach, Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 Back learned from Vivaldi. Bach’s concertos distinctive because of • Highly polyphonic texture • Emphasis on sonorous variety • Formal flexibility • Economy (what you hear 1 st is crucial!) 2/4 Baroque Keyboard Genres Improvisatory: toccata (“touch-piece), fantasia *could be anything), prelude (something played before something else; e.g. prelude and fugue) Chorale prelude based on chorale tune, played before congregation sings the chorale J.S. Bach, well-tempered clavier 2 books, each with 24 preludes and fugues in all keys of chromatic scale, major and minor In Bach’s WTF preludes are either-figuration pieces (toccatas)-Contrapuntal pieces (imitative polyphony)-Arioso pieces One or two ideas worked out thoroughly w/ no padding Genres in imitative polyphony: ricercar, fantasia, FUGUE •...
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- Winter '11
- Beethoven, Mozart, Baroque music, J. S. Bach, Key area, solo song w/