phil notes - Philosophy 9/7 1st Definition an event is...

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Philosophy 9/7 1 st Definition- an event is causally determined by previous events: given the previous events and given the relevant laws of nature, the later event could not but have occurred Ex. Because of the strike, dryness, oxygen not beat match lights 2 nd definition- universal determinism: every event is causally determined moral responsibility- should people receive credit or discredit 1. If determinism is true, there is no moral responsibility. (Nagel 50-54) Incompatibilism If every event is causally determined, every event or action is predetermined by events that were beyond one’s control. Therefore for every event, each event is the only possible event to have occurred, thus there is no moral responsibility. 2. If determinism is not true, there is no moral responsibility (Nagel 55-56) If there was nothing that determined an action, including oneself, one cannot be responsible for that action. Therefore there is no moral responsibility (Nagel 56-57) However, both claim 1 and 2 are structured that determinism and the falsehood of determinism are incompatible with moral responsibility* (kane, nagel, and hobak are all incompatibilists) Capitulation/Dismissal – Neither engages the argument, neither are philosophical arguments Philosophical engagements begin when one tries to find the flaws in the arguments. 9/9
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Hard Determinism (a) If determinism is true, no MR (b) Determinism is true, therefore no MR -Hard Determinism includes mental actions along with physical actions such as making choices. -Hard determinisms do not need to subscribe to universal determinism. As long there is enough determinism such that every human action is causally determined up to their birth. -The HD is neutral on questions of nature vs. nurture, the extent of which humans are affected by heredity or environment. As long as both were causally determined before birth MR still cannot be applied because neither is in the control of the human being. Hauberk believed it was all nurture, but that was before Darwin. -Having the same genetic makeup or similar environments does not mean determinism is false. The same exact effects occur if all causal situations are exactly the same. -Hobark says he does not know the complexities or details of these causal events or circumstances. -Hobark does not deny that we make choices, choice does not prove freedom. The choices are causally determined. Choice does not imply freedom, so even our choices cause us to be morally responsible. To the extent that if something is predictable, it was determined. TRUE If something is not predictable, it must have not been determined. FALSE If something is a square, it must be a rectangle. TRUE If something is not a square, it must not be a rectangle. FALSE
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9/14 How should we show both the dilemma “argument” and hard “determinist argument” are false? We ought to tackle the first premise for the dilemma because it is the same as the hard
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phil notes - Philosophy 9/7 1st Definition an event is...

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