4th lecture - The Brain in Two Parts: How it Works and What...

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Unformatted text preview: The Brain in Two Parts: How it Works and What it Does The Nervous System • The Body’s electrochemical communication system • Divided into two parts: The Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System • Made up of the brain and the spinal chord • 99 % of neurons are located in the CNS • Functions include: receiving, processing and storing incoming information; sends out messages to muscles, glands and internal organs • The central command system which controls thought and movement The Peripheral Nervous System • Nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord which handles input and output of the CNS • Connects the brain and spinal cord to the other areas of the body Neurons • Individual Cells which receive, integrate and transmit information • Sensory or Afferent Neurons: carry information to the brain from the skin, muscles or organs • Motor or Efferent Neurons: carry the brains output to muscles, glands and organs • Mirror Neurons: neurons which are activated by performing an action or by seeing another perform the same action – May play a role in developing new motor skills – Empathy and language (partly based on imitation) – Dysfunction linked to autistic spectrum disorders How it All Works: Neurons in Action • Neurons are the nerve cells which communicate to, from or inside the CNS • Glial cells: hold the neurons in place, nourish and insulate neurons. Non-neuron cells which provide a supportive function The Structure of A Neuron • Dendrites: receive messages from other neurons, transmit to the cell body • Cell body/soma: keep neurons alive; contains substances for growth, determines whether to fire • Axons: transmit messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands •...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Schreier during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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4th lecture - The Brain in Two Parts: How it Works and What...

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