11th lecture - Language and Thought Language system of...

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Language and Thought
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Language: system of symbols, sounds meanings and rules of combination that allow for communication among humans Benjamin Whorf: Linguistic relativity one’s language determines one’s thoughts
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Structure of Language Phonemes: smallest units of sounds which can be distinguished; change in sound can alter meaning “c” at or “b” at Initial phonemes b “i” t or b “a” t Middle phonemes -Morphemes: smallest units of meaning in a language; phrases made up of morphemes
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Semantics: the study of the meaning of words/combinations/sentences Syntax: the structure of a language, underlying rules of order/function Gleason Study: language rules are generative Overregularizations: grammatical rules incorrectly generalized to “exception” cases
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Language Acquisition Device: (Chomsky) humans possess an inborn language mechanism Hard-wired to sort input from 20-80 phonemes Lose by 12 months
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Surface structure: particular words used Deep structure: notion of nouns, verbs, commands Chomsky believes languages differ only in surface structure
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Expressive (productive) Language: the ability to produce language Receptive Language: the ability to comprehend, process and integrate the meaning of language Children usually have a greater capacity for receptive speech
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Stages in Language Development Crying Cooing Babbling First Words Holophrases Overextensions Telegraphic Speech:
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