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13th lecture - Motivation Motivation vigor and persistence...

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Motivation
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Motivation: vigor and persistence of goal directed behavior, helps move us towards our goals Evolutionary Theory: motivation plays a significant role in adaptation; social need to affiliate, share resources, provide protection, procreation
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Biological Needs/Motivations Homeostasis: tendency for the body (person) to want to maintain a state of constancy Hunger/Food: Energy is necessary for maintenance and growth. Search for a balanced diet
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Hypothalamus: primary structure of the brain which signals hunger and satiation (fullness) Lateral (near side): turns hunger "on" Stimulation yields increased eating. A lesion or damage can cause starvation Ventromedial (lower, middle) : is the hunger "off". Stimulation stops eating. Lesion or damage can cause vocarious
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Various Factors which Impact Eating Behaviors Biological Factors o Genetics influence metabolism o Bodily Sensations: growl, distension o Chemical Signals to the body o Genetic Mapping of "obesity genes"
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Social Factors o Environmental influences on eating behaviors o Complex and multiply determined o Eat more in groups o Expectation and Memory of Meals o Palatability o Social interactions
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Psychological Factors o Thinking about food and what it "means" o Learned food habits/preferences o Memories associated with food o Belief and feelings regarding body image o Cultural variations : robust = higher class o Food as a "substitute" for love, sex
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Obesity: rates currently based on Body Mass Index or BMI. An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. CDC 2005 2005-2006 data 33.3% of men and 35.6% of women were obese
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Rates of overweight and obese remain high with 31.9% of children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years at or above the 85th percentile of the 2000 BMI-for-age growth charts.
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