031711-Development - Development Developmental Psychology:...

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Development Developmental Psychology: Universal aspects of lifespan development from conception through death; Identifies cultural variations Explored physical, cognitive, social and emotional development Physical Development o Crephalacaudal: head to feet o Proximodistal: center moving outward Prenatal Development o Germinal Phase (Conception- 2 weeks) o Zygote: fertilized egg o Placenta: structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into fetus from mother’s bloodstream; allows waste to pass out Embryonic stage: o Head, face, and neck develop o Buds for limbs form and grow o Major organs/digestive system differentiating o Heartbeat begins Fetal Stage (8 th week-birth) o 3 rd month digestive organs begin to function buds for teeth form sex organs develop rapidly arms/fingers move o 4 th month face looks human lower body outgrows head bones are defined o 5 th month: fingernails and toenails appear Lanugo: fine, wooly hair over body Vernix: waxy coating collects o 6 th month eyebrows/lashes well defined eyes completely formed o 7 th month fetus capable of life outside uterus o 8 th /9 th month fat is deposited for later use fingernails beyond fingertips lanugo is shed myelination of brain takes place chief organs increase functioning vernix covers body
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Teratogens: harmful toxins that affect development resulting in defect, damage, or anomaly o Important concepts with teratogens Dose: How much? Basic Heredity: vulnerable vs. sturdy Age of organism at exposure Multiple Determination: stress, nutrition, lack of medical care o Teratogenic Agents Drugs or Chemicals: Increased understanding of the role of prenatal exposure to drugs on the developing child: Thalidomide Stress: prolonged stress linked with prematurity and low birth weight Smoking: mild stimulant; increases fetal activity; low birth weight, increased SIDS Marijuana: low birth weight, disturbed sleep in newborns, reduced attention to environment Heroin: premature birth weight, tremulous behavior, poor sleep, poor sucking and feeding, risk of SIDS Cocaine: “crack babies”: premature size/weight, tremulous, high pitched crying, respiratory & regurgitation problems, rigidity, withdrawal symptoms, deformities Comorbidity: abuse of multiple substances likely Alcohol: Leading teratogen in the United States causing mental retardation Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Physical Symptoms: growth retardation, head and facial abnormalities, microcephaly, skeletal, brain and heart damage Behavioral Symptoms: Poor impulse control, poor attention, hyperactivity, and cognitive deficits Fetal Alcohol Effects: some symptoms of FAS, but less physical symptoms (ARND) Paternal age may be a factor in birth defects and/or certain developmental disabilities Sensory Abilities and Reflexes of newborns/infants Vision: o Poor fixation ability o Limited ability to discriminate color
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Schreier during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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031711-Development - Development Developmental Psychology:...

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