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Unformatted text preview: ::::TCP\IP: A Mammoth Description By Ankit Fadia [email protected]:::: TCP\IP or Transmission Control Protocol \ Internet Protocol is a stack or collection of various protocols. A protocol is basically the commands or instructions using which two computers within a local network or the Internet can exchange data or information and resources. Transmission Control Protocol \ Internet Protocol or the TCP\IP was developed around the time of the ARPAnet. It is also known as the Protocol Suite. It consists of various protocols but as the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and the IP (Internet Protocol) are the most, well known of the suite of protocols, the entire family or suite is called the TCP\IP suite. The TCP\ IP Suite is a stacked suite with various layers stacked on each other, each layer looking after one aspect of the data transfer. Data is transferred from one layer to the other. The Entire TCP\ IP suite can be broken down into the below layers-: Layer Name Protocol Link Layer (Hardware, Ethernet) ARP, RARP, PPP, Ether Network Layer(The Invisible Layer) IP, ICMP Transport Layer UDP, TCP Application Layer(The Visible Layer) The Actual running Applications like-: FTP client, Browser Physical Layer (Not part of TCP \IP) Physical Data Cables, Telephone wires Data travels from the Link Layer down to the Physical Layer at the source and at the destination it travels from the Physical Layer to the Link Layer. We will later discuss what each layer and each protocol does. The TCP\IP suite not only helps to transfer data but also has to correct various problems that might occur during the data transfer. There are basically two types of most common errors that might occur during the process of data transfer. They are-: Data Corruption -: In this kind of error, the data reaches the destination after getting corrupted. Data Loss -: In this kind of error, the entire collection of packets which constitute the data to be transferred does not reach the destination. TCP\IP expects such errors to take place and has certain features which prevent, such error which might occur. Checksums-: A checksum is a value (Normally, a 16 Bit Value) that is formed by summing up the Binary Data in the used program for a given data block. The program being used is responsible for the calculation of the Checksum value. The data being sent by the program sends this calculated checksum value, along with the data packets to the destination. When the program running at the destination receives the data packets, it re-calculates the Checksum value. If the Checksum value calculated by the Destination program matches with the Checksum Value attached to the Data Packets by the Source Program match, then the data transfer is said to be valid and error free. Checksum is calculated by adding up all the octets in a datagram....
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- Fall '11