Chapter 13 - Chapter 13- Stress, Coping and Health -...

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Chapter 13- Stress, Coping and Health - Biophysical model holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. - Growing recognition that psychological factors influence physical health eventually lead to the emergence of health psychology - Health psychology is concerned with how psychological factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness The Nature of Stress - Stress can be defined as any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities Stress as an everyday event - Studies conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters ( tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis) typically find elevated rates of psychological problems and physical illnesses in places affected by these disasters Only a small part of what constitutes stress - Every day problems ( waiting in line, car troubles etc) and the minor nuisances of life are also very stressful - A major stressful event can trigger various minor stressors. E.g. going through a divorce is a major stressor vs. finding a lawyer, changing bank accounts are examples of minor stressors that follow Appraisal: Stress lies in the Eyes of the beholder - Events stressful for one person may not be stressful for another ( e.g. flying in the plane is stressful for one person, but another frequent flyer may not think of it as stress causing) - Anxious, neurotic people report to be more stressed than others when facing difficulties - This proves that peoples appraisal’s of stressful events are highly subjective Major Types of Stress - Acute Stressors: are threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint E.g. dealing with a major exam, or having your home being threatened by severe flooding - Chronic Stressors : threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit E.g. persistent financial strains, ongoing pressures from a hostile boss etc - 4 major types of stress include Frustration - Occurs in any situation in which pursuit of some goal is thwarted Routine sources of frustration include : traffic jams, annoying drivers etc - Most kinds of frustration are brief and insignificant - Failures and losses are two common frustrations that are often highly stressful Conflict - Occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioural impulses compete for expression - Approach- approach conflict ; a choice must be made between two attractive goals Choosing between playing soccer or basketball on a free afternoon Least stressful of three types of conflicts - Avoidance-avoidance conflict; a choice must be made between two unattractive goals
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Choosing between unemployment cheques or taking a degrading k=job at a car wash station Really unpleasant and highly stressful - Approach-avoidance conflict; a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2012 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 1010 taught by Professor Jubis during the Spring '11 term at York University.

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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13- Stress, Coping and Health -...

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