Lec 2 Bild 3 2011 for Ted

Lec 2 Bild 3 2011 for Ted - Reminders: -Download the...

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Reminders: -Download the syllabus (ted.ucsd.edu) -Download lectures before class for easier note-taking (ted.ucsd.edu) -Listen to the podcast if you miss class or want to revisit a particular lecture topic (podcast.ucsd.edu) -Email: I can’t answer individual questions over email. -Attendance: I don’t take attendance. -Testing: anything mentioned in lecture or in the assigned reading or on the lecture notes may appear on a test. -Scantron: the scantron sheets will be provided for you
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BILD 3 Lecture 2: Evidence of Evolution I. Fossil record A. extinction B. succession C. transitional forms II. Vestigial organs III. Homology A. structural B. developmental C. molecular IV. Direct observation of changes
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Evolution = genetic change over time Microevolution : change in the genetic composition of a population across generations Hypothetical population of beetles
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Macroevolution : change in the composition of species over time Evolution = genetic change over time Mutation Gene Flow Genetic Drift Natural Selection + 3.8 Billion Years = Macroevolution This must be reconstructed using all evidence: geology, fossils, and living organisms
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I. Fossil record fossil - any trace of an organism that lived in the past
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Fossils reveal evolutionary changes within groups of organisms. Figure shows a trilobite series from between 513 and 512 million years ago. Each are from a different depth at the dig site and thus from a different time period. Red dots indicate location and angle of spines in the head shield.
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Fossils can be used to test evolutionary hypotheses Based on anatomical data, evolutionary biologists hypothesize: -early land vertebrates evolved from fish -early amphibians evolved from early land vertebrates Therefore, 1) the earliest fossil fishes should be older than the earliest fossil land vertebrates, and 2) the earliest fossil land vertebrates should be older than the earliest fossil amphibians Radiometric data provides quantitative estimates of age
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Extinction controversy ended with the discovery of the Irish elk - largest antlers of any animal. Largest deer that ever lived. 1812 - Cuvier studied the Irish elk and found it was different from any extant animal. Same with the mammoth and other fossil vertebrates. They were extinct. Extinctions had happened.
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fossils from one region similar to extant organisms from that same region E.g., Australian fossils more similar to Australian organisms than they are to European organisms. extinct marsupial (Australia)
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BILD 3 taught by Professor Wills during the Fall '07 term at UCSD.

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Lec 2 Bild 3 2011 for Ted - Reminders: -Download the...

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