Lec 8 Bild 3 2011 for Ted

Lec 8 Bild 3 2011 for Ted - Mid-term Exam...

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Unformatted text preview: Mid-term Exam Announcements-Tuesday, October 25 th at 8:00 am (regular lecture time)-50 questions spanning the lectures through Thursday (10/20); 100 pts-Multiple choice. Bring a number 2 pencil or several-No smart phones, calculators, etc. (you WONT need one)-Pay more attention to the lecture material, use your book for backup if you dont understand something in lecture-Dont cheat BILD3 Lec 8: Phylogenetic trees I. Overview II. How do we read trees? III. How do we build trees? A. characters B. reasons for similarities 1. homology 2. homoplasy 3. shared & derived homologies C. tree building techniques 1. outgroup comparisons 2. parsimony IV. Why are phylogenies useful? V. Molecular clocks I. Overview Phylogeny : evolutionary history of a group of species- branching diagram - shows relationships among taxa- shows patterns of ancestry- use all possible types of data Phylogenetic trees must be inferred- reconstructing the past we didnt see- hypothesis Taxonomy versus systematics Carolus Linneaus (1707-1778) Swedish botanist- binomial naming system- hierarchical categorization Still in use today; common names can be misleading, but binomial Latin names are distinctive Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Diptera Family: Muscidae Genus: Musca Species: domestica Darwin gave this system an explanation: hierarchical classification reflects historical events (descent from a common ancestor) (1837) sketch by Darwin of a phylogenetic tree Connection between classification and phylogeny : hierarchical classification is reflected in the ever finer branching of phylogenetic trees Are classification and phylogeny always in agreement? For the most part - classification represents real history of evolution For the most part - organisms that look more alike are more closely related But NOT always true elephants manatees and dugongs hyrax birds and crocodiles are more closely related (share a more recent common ancestor) than crocodiles and lizards II. How to read a phylogenetic treeII....
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BILD 3 taught by Professor Wills during the Fall '07 term at UCSD.

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Lec 8 Bild 3 2011 for Ted - Mid-term Exam...

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