Lec 9 Bild 3 2011

Lec 9 Bild 3 2011 - Lec 9: Organismal Diversity I I....

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Lec 9: Organismal Diversity I I. Overview III. Eukarya (protists) IV. Eukarya (algae) Exam Review Session: Sunday, October 23 from 2-6 pm in Center 119 BRING PHOTO ID TO EXAM
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I. Overview Until 1960s classification schemes recognized two kingdoms: Plants: bacteria, eukaryotes with chloroplasts, algae, fungi, plants Animals: mobile eukaryotes, animals Euglena is a mixotrophic, mobile eukaryote with chloroplasts and was alternately considered a plant and an animal
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Molecular phylogenies began to cast doubt on whether or not Monera and Protista were actually monophyletic Based on current data, ‘Monera’ is paraphyletic, ‘Protista’ is polyphyletic 5 Kingdom scheme widely adopted in the 1960’s: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Example of polyphyletic grouping
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Current classification schemes recognize three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
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Unlike Eukaryotes, Prokaryotes have … no membrane-bounded organelles no nuclear envelope one circular chromosome II. Prokaryotic domains: Archaea & Bacteria
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Characteristics of Prokaryotes
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are each considered monophyletic Internal relationships within each prokaryotic domain are in some cases poorly known
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Trait Bacteria Archaea peptidoglycan in cell wall + - membrane hydrocarbons - some branched RNA polymerase one kind several kinds initiator amino acid for formyl-methionine methionine protein synthesis introns very rare some present histones absent in some species See also: Table 27.2 in Campbell (comparison of the three domains)
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Bacteria (see overview of diversity in Fig. 27.17) Proteobacteria (possible origin of mitochondrion) e.g., Rhizobium live in association with plant roots where they fix atmospheric nitrogen Gram-positive e.g., Staphylococcus & Streptococcus Cyanobacteria (possible origin of chloroplast) Spirochetes e.g., pathogens causing Lyme disease and syphilis
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Archaea - extremophiles well-represented in this group - halophiles live in highly saline environments e.g., Halobacterium - thermophiles live in extremely hot environments e.g., Sulfolobus - methanogenic bacteria live in anoxic environments
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Genetic variation in the prokaryotes Rapid reproduction - mutations are rare but prokaryotes are capable of stupendously high rates of
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BILD 3 taught by Professor Wills during the Fall '07 term at UCSD.

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Lec 9 Bild 3 2011 - Lec 9: Organismal Diversity I I....

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