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Lec 11 Bild 3 2011(1)

Lec 11 Bild 3 2011(1) - Lecture 11 Organismal Diversity...

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-Note from last lecture regarding lichens -Overview of Kingdom Animalia -Exam return Lecture 11: Organismal Diversity III
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Lichens are symbiotic associations between a photoautotroph (either green algae or cyanobacteria) and a fungus (usually an ascomycete).
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Lec 11: Organismal Diversity III I. Overview II. Eukarya (invertebrates) III. Eukarya (vertebrates)
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II. Eukarya (invertebrates) Oldest animal fossils are from 565-550 mya: Ediacaran biota from Australia Molecular clock estimates suggest older animals but fossils that would confirm this have yet to be found.
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Paleozoic era (542-251 mya): many extant phyla appeared in the Cambrian 500 mya - many extant phyla appear 428 mya - arthro- pods colonize land 360 mya - vertebrates colonize land 250 mya - Permian extinction
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Mesozoic era (251- 65.5 mya): No fundamentally new animal groups First coral reefs Dinosaurs Insects diversify 65 mya - KT extinction
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Cenozoic era (65.5 mya - present): rise of large mammalian herbivores and predators Further diversification of insects and angiosperms - evidence of coevolution Diversification of birds Hominids evolve
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OTHER EUKARYOTES Choanoflagellates Sponges Animals Other animals Individual choanoflagellate Collar cell (choanocyte) What traits define animals ? Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that animals and unicellular choanoflagellates share a most recent common ancestor: (1) Molecular homologies at the gene level (2) Collar cells in animals and unicellular choanoflagellates are nearly identical (3) Similar collar cells have been identified in other animals
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What traits define animals ? - all animals are chemoheterotrophs that ingest living or non-living organic matter and digest it internally with enzymes - multicellular eukaryotes that lack cell walls; cells supported by structural proteins (e.g., collagen) and skeletons - muscle cells and nerve cells organized into tissues with specific functions - most reproduce sexually - many developmental homologies
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