cult ch8 notes

cult ch8 notes - CHAPTER 8 EMOTIONS What is an Emotion The...

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CHAPTER 8 – EMOTIONS What is an Emotion? The James-Lange Theory of Emotions James proposed that our emotions are the physiological responses or bodily reverberations to stimuli in our worlds; Lange proposed that these physiological responses were products of our autonomic nervous system, such as changes in our heart rate, breathing, pupil dilation, tear secretion, blood flow to our skin, and stomach contractions James-Lange theory of emotions = our bodies respond to stimuli in the world by preparing us to react in a survival-facilitating way and our emotions are our bodily changes that signal how we should behave Each emotion word that we have is the description of a different bodily state; embarrassment is the sensation of our blood rushing to our faces; love is the feeling of our stomach turning end over end; fear is the sensation of our pounding hearts Emotions are no longer seen to be just the physiological experience, but also include appraisals, nonverbal expressions, neural patterns, and subjective feelings The Two-Factor Theory of Emotions Criticism of James-Lange theory autonomic system seemed to be too clumsy and slow to be differentiated into all the emotional states we experience; seemed that key components of autonomic nervous system, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, were either just turned on or off; could not provide the complexity to cover the wide array of emotions we feel Two-factor theory = emotions were primarily our interpretations of those bodily responses; the two factors are the physiological signals and interpretation of those signals; redirected the focus of emotions away from the physical body and into the mind Earlier studies and thought experiments had never separated people’s interpretations from their actual physiological sensations, source of arousal; to do this, a study provided participants with situational cues to guide their interpretation; participants were assigned to a situation that was to lead them to interpret their feelings as euphoria or anger; manipulated the amount of physiological arousal the participants would be experiencing; given an injection under 1 of 4 different conditions o Placebo condition = injection of saline; truthfully told that injection would not have any side effects on their state of arousal o Epinephrine-Informed condition = injection of epinephrine; truthfully told that the injection would cause their arousal to increase; epinephrine is the synthetic equivalent of adrenaline, a neurotransmitter that heightens arousal in the sympathetic nervous system o Epinephrine-Uninformed condition = injection of epinephrine; falsely told that it would not have any side effects of increased arousal
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o Epinephrine-Misinformed condition = run only with participants in the euphoria condition; injection of epinephrine; falsely told that it would have side effects of decreasing their arousal o Last 2 conditions were key; strongest emotions were in Epinephrine-
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cult ch8 notes - CHAPTER 8 EMOTIONS What is an Emotion The...

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