cult ch9 notes

cult ch9 notes - CHAPTER 9 COGNITION AND PERCEPTION...

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CHAPTER 9 – COGNITION AND PERCEPTION Horizons in landscape scenes were 15% higher on average in East Asian pictures than in Western ones Figures in portraits were on average 3 times larger in Western pictures than they were in East Asian ones Analytic and Holistic Thinking Taxonomic categorization strategy = stimuli are grouped according to the perceived similarity of their attributes (dog and rabbit); common among Westerners Thematic categorization strategy = stimuli are grouped together on the basis of casual, temporal, or spatial relationships among them (rabbit and carrot); common among East Asians Analytic thinking = focus on objects and their attributes; objects perceived as existing independently from their contexts; understood in terms of their component parts; attributes that make up objects are used as a basis for categorizing them, and a set of fixed abstract rules is used to predict and explain the behaviour of these objects; Western cultures Holistic thinking = orientation to the context as a whole; associative way of thinking; attention to the relations among objects and among the objects and the surrounding context; objects are understood in terms of how they relate to the rest of the context; their behaviour is predicted and explained on the basis of those relationships; emphasizes knowledge gained through experience rather than the application of fixed abstract rules; East Asian cultures Cultural experiences lead people to have either primarily independent or interdependent self- concepts o Collectivistic societies = socialized in relational contexts, attention directed at relational concerns o Individualistic societies = socialized to be independent, attention focused on objects Cultural differences in ways of understanding people also shape the kinds of information people attend to in their physical environments o Independent self-concepts = understand people by focusing on their inner attributes and attending less to relationships o Interdependent self-concepts = conceive of people in terms of their relationships with others Cultural differences in ways of thinking between Westerners and East Asians persist to this day because ancient Greece and Confucian China provided the intellectual groundwork from which modern Western and East Asian societies have evolved o Platonic perspective that the world is a collection of discrete, unchanging objects that can be categorized by reference to a set of universal properties o Intellectual traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism emphasized harmony, interconnectedness, and change Holistic thinking is quite widespread throughout the world; analytic thinking is the relatively unusual thinking style, in that it is largely restricted to people who have had much contact with Western society or education systems Attention Rorschach = projective test in which people report what they see in an ambiguous stimulus, like ink blots Attention that holistic thinkers direct to the entire scene mean that they are especially good at
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cult ch9 notes - CHAPTER 9 COGNITION AND PERCEPTION...

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