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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Emotion Gender in the experience and Expression of Emotion- Women are more emotional than men, but only for a restricted range of emotions happiness, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise- Paul Ekman Display Rules overlearned habits about who can show what emotion whom and when they can show it Display rules make it possible to experience one emotion and display another or to display no emotional reaction at all despite the internal experience of strong emotion. Display rules provides an explanation for the variability of emotion from person to person and from culture to culture. Display rules explains why women cry more than men.- women and men experience emotion with similar frequencies. Therefore, men experiences of positive emotions more (excitement/ clam/ ) Women- anxiety and sadness No difference with anger Women who lived with young children experienced more negative emotions than who did not- Effect of children on emotional experience maternal instinct- Mothering and the joys of that experience are the basis for the association of women with emotionality- Maternal (feminine)behavior versus Aggressive behavior (masculine) The Myth of Maternal Instinct ? ?- Instinctive behavior is determined by biological factors, and is largely insensitive to environmental or situational conditions- Concept of maternal instinct 19 th century women could not be as intellectually developed as men because their energies were required to go toward reproduction and care giving. Nature had suited them to focus on immediate situations rather than abstract ones (hence their intellectual inferiority) and to be more perceptive and emotional (hence their attraction to small and helpless beings). - Maternal instinct is not so well established among scientific researchers- In order to have offspring that live long enough to have offspring themselves, the processes of motherhood and nurturing young are paramount importance. - Male primates involvement with infants varies from being the primary caretaker to showing benign disinterest. Maternal deprivation and its consequences for Nurturing - Affection and attachment of mothers for their babies/ of babies and their mothers/ of fathers for their babies/ of children for each other.- Money cause ethnic prevent him using humans as participants- Research on maternal deprivation originated from his desire to raise infant monkeys in a controlled environment, but he noticed that isolation reared infant monkeys behave abnormally. (Harlows) Space in hours/ circled their cages or rocked repetitively for long periods of time/ repeatedly injured themselves, especially when humans approached....
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- Winter '11