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Chapter 6 psych 307 - Chapter 6 Motivation Motivations for...

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Chapter 6- Motivation Motivations for self- enhancement and Self Esteem λ Japanese and North American’s motivations American tend to put a positive spin on the student’s strengths reflected a powerful motivation Self-enhancement: motivation to view oneself positively Ex) North Americans strong need to view themselves positively. Rosenberg Self Esteem scale Self-enhancement is a motivation to focus on and elaborate more about one’s strengths than on one’s weaknesses. think about your self as good, think less about your own weaknesses This motivation used to be viewed as universal. Cross-cultural research reveals that it’s more pronounced in Western cultures than elsewhere. lion in the mirror Example Study - Students at Japanese and American university clubs were asked to evaluate themselves and four club mates. We compared how positively people evaluated themselves compared with how positively their four club mates, evaluated them. Self-evaluations that were more positive than evaluations by one’s peers were evidence for self-enhancement. Self-evaluations that were more negative than evaluations by one’s peers were evidence for self-criticism. λ Evaluating the Evidence for Self-Enhancement Across Cultures λ Many studies have compared Westerners and East Asians on different measures of self-enhancement.
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λ We conducted a meta-analysis on all published studies comparing Westerners and East Asians on various measures of self- enhancement. λ Each study produces an effect (d) - positive effects show evidence for self-enhancement. To summarize, there are large cultural differences in self-enhancement motivations. Whereas Westerners show consistent and strong evidence for self- enhancement, East Asians do not. in many studies , east Asians show evidence for self-criticism . λ Do East Asians Enhance their Groups? λ One alternative explanation is that East Asians enhance their group selves rather than their individual selves. λ We explored this in a study by comparing how people evaluated their universities (Heine & Lehman, 1997). We contrasted two rival universities in Vancouver and in Kyoto. In Vancouver we assessed how UBC and SFU students evaluated both UBC and SFU. In Kyoto we assessed how Ritsumeikan and Doshisha students evaluated both Ritsumeikan and Doshisha.
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We conducted a study to investigate whether cultural differences in self- enhancement generalized to their private thoughts. Canadian and Japanese first completed 20 IQ test items on a computer. They were told that the second part of the study investigated their ability to make decisions with limited information. the decision they were to make is whether their performance across all 20IQ items is better or worse than that of the average student from their school.
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