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Exam Three: Proctored Exam- all students should have already had information regarding proctored exams. 35 questions worth 35 points you will have 75 minutes to take this exam.Items on the Exam are from Week 10-11, which includes information from course PowerPoints, readings, course text and all other material covered in weeks 10-11.Please note:If you have difficulty during the exam call Toll-free: 1-855-577-2039 or through the direct link (this could be faster): Support Center: .(Links to an external site.)Be sure to review guidelines for diseases and conditionsPresenting signs and symptomsThink about your case studiesDiagnostic testingDifferential Diagnosis for common Renal and Men’s Health Treatment regimens utilizing updated guidelines found in your PowerPoints for common disorders and diseases seen in clinic.Exam 3 Outline: Main TopicsRenal ProblemsDysuriaSubjective experience of pain or a burning sensation on urinationFrequency, urgency, hesitationCan be secondary to several medical conditions or certain medicationsMost commonly associated with lower urinary system infectionsDysuria: Differential DiagnosisMost often associated with a bladder problem and rarely with renal diseaseInflammatory lesions of the prostate, bladder, and urethraOther conditions associated with dysuriaBladder tumorsChronic renal failureNephrolithiasisDisease of upper urinary systemOutside the renal systemSTIsVaginitis and prostatitisWomen should be questioned about vaginal discharge or irritationSymptoms may lead to other diagnoses
Urethral stricturesProlapsed uterusPelvic peritonitisCancer of the cervix or prostateDysuria: TestingUrinalysis is the easiest, most noninvasive, and most economical way to identify UTIs and other renal problems.Once the associated condition is identified, appropriate treatment can begin.Lower Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)Occurs when the normal sterile condition of the urinary tract is invaded by pathogenic bacteriaUrethra: urethritisBladder: cystitisBladder wall: interstitial cystitis (IC)Prostate gland: prostatitisAcute infectionsCharacterized by the onset of UTI in a previously symptom-free individualWhat tests would you order to diagnose?What results would make you suspect UTI?Chronic infectionsCaused by obstructions, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, presence of multiple strains of bacteriaComplicated UTIAccompanied by factors that complicate the infectionLower UTI: Epidemiology and CausesMore prevalent in sexually active adults, very young children, and frail older adultsOther predisposing conditionsSuppressed immune systemPregnancyUrinary obstructionCatheter dependencyNeurogenic bladderDiabetes mellitusLower UTI: PathophysiologyUsually occurs as a result of contamination from the patient’s own gastrointestinal tract