ch 8,9 - Bild1 The Cell Fridays 10am Centr 217A TA Xu Yu...

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Bild1: The Cell TA: Xu Yu Zeng Office Hours Fridays 10am Centr 217A [email protected] Mon Tap Ex. 11am Chapter 8: Metabolism Catabolic Pathways : Break down molecules, release energy. [Ex] cellular respiration Anabolic Pathways : Create molecules, consume energy. [Ex] photosynthesis Free Energy : measure the proportion of a system’s energy that can perform wor k. - ∆G=spontaneous, +∆G=nonspontaneous Unstable systems (large G) tend to move toward stability (small G) Exergonic Reaction : releases energy Endergonic Reaction : consumer energy Closed System : Reaches equilibrium, G=0, cannot do work, cell dies Open System : system moves toward equilibrium, series of energy-releasing reactions maintain the lack of equilibrium to power work for the cell. Mechanical Work : The beating of cilla, Movement. [Ex] Muscle contraction, beating cilia Transport Work : pumping of substrate across the membrane against their concentration or charged gradients. [Ex] Proton pump Chemical Work : Building and breaking bonds. Driving reactions that does not occur spontaneously [Ex] Protein translation. ATP Phosphates : unstable bonds due to negative repulsions between P groups. Uses hydrolysis (adds H 2 O) to break bond, Exergonic, ∆G= -7.3kcal Can be coupled with endergonic reaction, coupled reactions still have - ∆G, spontaneous Phosphorylation : adding phosphate group to a substrate from ATP. Drives work. ATP gives a P to substrate, as substrate releases P,
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