Michael's Cell Reproduction and Mendelian Genetics

Michael's Cell Reproduction and Mendelian Genetics -...

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Unformatted text preview: Michael Ghiam Section 4 ­5pm HSS 2321  ­  ­  ­  ­ Review: Mitosis and Meiosis + Questions Humans have a total of 23 chromosome pairs (46 total), one chromosome in each pair from mom and one from dad in all somatic cells (body cells) and 23 chromosomes in their gametes (gametes are in the ovary and testes). Define Haploid   Define Diploid   Interphase/Cell Cycle P , M A T M G 0 -no f u r ther d i v i si on ( ner v es, m u scl es) I nt G2 ). er ase d G1 ph S C el l C y cl e  ­ G 1, S , G2 are really part of interphase: - G1 and G2  ­doubles cytoplasm and organelles - S  ­synthesis, replication of DNA, DNA goes from single stranded to double stranded Mitosis  ­ Prophase  ­ Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; forms, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappear  ­ Metaphase ­ line up single file on the plane and each one attaches to a separate spindle fiber by its .  ­ Anaphase  ­ separate and migrate to the poles.  ­ Telophase  ­ ­ ­ cells are formed; a nuclear membrane is formed around both nuclei; cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm) occurs; two identical, (Haploid/Diploid) cells Meiosis  ­ Interphase I – Same as in mitosis; start with a diploid cell; double ­stranded chromosomes  ­ Prophase I  ­ Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; the apparatus forms, and the nucleoli and nuclear membrane . - chromosomes come together and synapse forming a . -  ­homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material - Genetic Recombination  ­ promotes variation, therefore daughter cells are Michael Ghiam Section 4 ­5pm HSS 2321 not identical to parents.  ­ Metaphase I  ­ pairs line up along the equatorial plate, and attach to spindle fibers.  ­ Anaphase I  ­ Homologous chromosomes are separated, and move to opposite poles  ­ Telophase I and Cytokinesis – A nuclear membrane forms around each nucleus. - Each chromosome at this point consists of two chromatids and a centromere. - Each cell has been reduced to the haploid condition  ­ Prophase II – Identical to Prophase of Mitosis  ­ Metaphase II – Chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate  ­ Anaphase II – Chromatids are separated and moved to opposite poles  ­ Telophase II and Cytokensis – nuclear membrane forms around each nucleus - Each chromosome at this point consist of one sister chromatid and a centromere - Results in a total of 4 Cells that are Non Identical. Review Questions 1. Cell Division is tightly regulated. Which of the following is TRUE regarding Mitosis OR Meiosis? I. Mitosis shows no homologue pairing II. There is no S phase between meiosis I and II III. Meiosis centromeres do not divide at anaphase I A. I and III B. I and II C. II D. I, II and III 2. The Following are characteristics of an unknown inheritance pattern I. There is a 25 % risk of having a homozygous normal child II. There is a 25% risk of having a homozygous affected child III. There is a 50% risk of having a heterozygous child Which of the following Mendel’s inheritance patterns most closely fits with the above information A. Autosomal Dominant B. Autosomal Recessive C. X ­linked dominant D. X – linked Recessive 3. If a mother and a father both have one mutant gene for a disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, what is their risk of having an affected child? a. 0 b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% 4. Which of the following statements applies/apply to an autosomal dominant inheritance? Circle all that apply a. A person Needs a single copy of the mutant gene to inherit the disease b. AD traits do not skip generations c. Father to son transmission is not observed ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2012 for the course BILD 1 taught by Professor Boulanger during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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