Week%2010%20Worksheet - Week 10 Worksheet BILD1 1)...

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Week 10 Worksheet BILD1 1) Important technique in biotechnology: polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) (amplify) a) Allows you to obtain millions of copies of ____ of interest, starting with a few (or a single) copy. b) Relies on thermostable DNA Polymerase. Stable in extreme temperatures. c) Requires _______, specific to the ends of the sequence you want to amplify. 2) Steps in PCR reaction: a.i) Start with double stranded DNA you heat it and anneal the ______ (short DNA sequences to the ends) then lower temperature and allow DNA polymerase to synthesize the complementary strands. Start with one molecule of DNA then you’ve ended up with 2 identical DNA molecules… then 4 and so on. a.ii) What is the goal of PCR? (a.ii.1) Goal: amplify the DNA of interest. b) Denaturation: @ high temp c) Annealing: d) Extension: by DNA polymerase 3) Regulation of ______ ___________ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: all cells contain exactly the same genome. Those cells express different genes. Among genes we can distinguish 2 general groups: a) ______________genes: RNA Polymerase, histones, enzymes that produce energy participate in glycolysis etc. b) ______________genes: only required in one type of cell. Eye cell: crystalline vs. beta cells in pancreas that produce insulin. 4) Why does a prokaryote cell need to regulate the expression of its genes? a) In response to environmental changes. Special set of genes that are specific to breaking down lactose (milk sugar) b) In response to its own metabolic needs. Ex. Synthesis of one amino acid 5) Regulation of transcription is accomplished by __________ ________and ___________ regions: a) ___________ __________are proteins that bind to the regulatory regions of the gene and increase or decrease the rate of transcription of the gene. a.i) Activators: a.ii) Repressors: (a.ii.1) Work by binding to DNA sequences. DNA regulatory sequences: promoter is what binds it is a DNA seq that acts as a promoter (TATA box). (a.ii.2) ___________ (prokaryotes) binds transcription factors. (a.ii.3) __________: in eukaryotes, DNA sequences that bind transcription factors: silencers is an enhancer helps to decrease transcription. b)
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Week%2010%20Worksheet - Week 10 Worksheet BILD1 1)...

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