evolution the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today emergent properties property where living things become more and more complex as it goes from cellular level to organ system. They are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. systems biology a combination of components that function together. The goal is to construct models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems. eukaryotic cel are larger, membrane-enclosed organelles, and have nucleus. Most of the DNA is in an organelle called the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane prokaryotic cel are smaller, lack membrane-enclosed organelles and does not have nucleus. The DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed called the nucleoid genome is the entire “library” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits. Human cel s have two similar sets of chromosomes. negative feedback accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process. Excess feeds back and inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of the pathway positive feedback an end product speeds up its production bioinformatics the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high-throughput methods inquiry a search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions data recorded observations, items of information on which scientific inquiry is based discovery science describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data hypothesis tentative answer to a well-framed question, an educated guess, based on experience and on the data available from discovery science element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio matter anything that takes up space and has mass atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element atomic nucleus where protons and neutrons are packed together tightly in a dense core at the center of an atom atomic number equal the number of protons, which is unique to that element mass number the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom atomic mass where the mass number is an approximation of the total mass of an atom isotopes different atomic forms when some atoms have more neutrons than other atoms of the same element and therefore have greater mass covalent bond is the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds electronegativity the attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond ionic bond when cations and anions attract each other hydrogen bond forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
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