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biology vocab midterm 1 part 2

biology vocab midterm 1 part 2 - a membranous sac of...

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lysosome a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules phagocytosis cellular process of engulfing solid particles such as bacteria autophagy cellular process that use hydrolytic enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material, so lysosomes break down the damaged organelles food vacuoles fuses with a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food contractile vacuoles pumps excess water out of the cell, to maintain a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell central vacuole is an internal part of a plant cell's endomembrane system, derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus mitochondria the sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels with the help of oxygen chloroplasts found in plants and algae, are sites of photosynthesis, they convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water peroxisome an oxidative organelle that is not part of the endomembrane system, they import its proteins primarily from the cytosol cristae infoldings of the inner membrane in the mitochondria mitochondrial matrix enclosed by the inner membrane, contains many different enzymes as well as the mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes plastids plant organelles in the chloroplasts, used to store starch, particularly in roots and tubers, and chromoplasts, which have pigments that give fruits and flowers their orange and yellow hues thylakoids membranous system inside the chloroplast, they are in the form of flattened, interconnected sacs granum in some regions, thylakoids are stacked like poker chips, each stack is a granum stroma the fluid outside the thylakoids which contains the chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes cytoskeleton a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm, organizes the structures and activities of the cell is composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments motor proteins bring about the bending of cilia and flagella by gripping microtubules within those organelles and sliding them against each other microtubules hollow rods measuring 25nm in diameter and from 200nm to 25 micrometers in length, thickest of the three types centrosome a region that is often located near the nucleus and is considered a "microtubule-organizing center", place where microtubules grow out from in animal cells centrioles composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring flagella and cilia microtubule containing extensions that project from some cells dyneins each outer doublet that has pairs of protruding neighboring doublet, are large motor proteins, and they are responsible for the bending movements of organelles microfilaments solid rods about 7nm in diameter,also called actin filament built from molecules of actin, twisted double chain of actin subunits myosin
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