HOMEOSTASIS IN THE BODY - Acid-Base Equilibrium in the...

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Acid-Base Equilibrium in the body: A case of homeostasis pH scale is a negative log scale that measures the concentration of H+ ions in moles 1M = 0pH 10E-7M = 7pH (Neutral pH) Review the pH scale from Chemistry textbook. .. Everything above 7pH is basic while below 7pH is Acidic Gastric juices are the most acidic fluid in our body Urine and pH Urine production is used as a compensatory mechanism that can be used to regulate pH. When we have too much acid in our body, we urinate more acidic substance (H+ ions). For this reason, the pH range of urine fluctuates greatly (far above any other fluid in our body). Blood and pH Blood will always be slightly alkaline. It will always be slightly basic. The range of blood is VERY limited or severe consequences will occur. Below 7.2pH in the blood or above 7.6pH will result in shock (inability of the body to bring itself into homeostatic balance). The normal pH range of blood is between 7.35 and 7.45. Physiological Acidosis: Below 7.35pH in blood stream. At this range, we are not actually acidic as the pH is still at 7, the neutral level. Physiological Alkalosis: Above 7.45pH in blood stream. Range of Acidity in Human Human can have urine with pH of 8 and stomach acid of a pH of 1.5. If we cannot maintain the pH levels in our body, death is inevitable. Alkalosis is a much more rare problem and is almost never fatal. Acidosis is a serious problem and can be fatal, at a pH of about 7.0 the CNS becomes so depressed normal functioning ceases! At a pH of lower than 7.0 it is impossible to bring the pH back up to a level that is not life threatening. Artificial support is required. How do we avoid extreme pH fluctuations? Equilibrium reactions and buffers are present in the body. These reactions are responsible to countering a change in H+ ion and OH- ion. Specifically, our body contains a bicarbonate buffer system. When there is too much H+ in our blood stream, carbon dioxide will react with the H+ to form bicarbonate. On the other hand, if we have basic conditions in our body, a reverse reaction will occur to get rid of the excess basic ions. .. An equilibrium reaction is a type of reversible chemical reaction wherein both products and reactants are present at the same time. The ratio in the products and reactants is maintained such that if one of the parts of the equilibrium is removed the reaction moves in such a way as to compensate for the loss. All of the buffers participate in equilibrium reactions so they always act to keep a balance between the reactants and products. A brief explanation of the buffer system (Incase the one above is confusing) For buffers one of the reactants is H+ thus buffer systems act to keep H+ in balance The buffer consumes H+ so if H+ increases the buffer will consume it If H+ decreases the buffer will produce H+ Buffer system failure If there is too much of a reactant (ie. H+), the entire buffer may end up being used to compensate for that change in H+. As a result, buffer systems are only effective to a
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HOMEOSTASIS IN THE BODY - Acid-Base Equilibrium in the...

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