RENAL FAILURE - Renal Failure can be divided into three...

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Renal Failure can be divided into three categories: Pre-Renal: Caused by a factor outside of the kidney initially. Will effect other areas before causing the kidney function to decrease. Example: Dehydration, Loss of blood (If kidneys are not well perfused, tissue death will occur) Renal Failure: A disease effecting the kidney directly causes it to fail. For example, primary renal disease may cause the kidney to fail. Most kidney failure’s occur in this fashion. Besides disease, the kidney can be damaged by changes in blood flow and pressure. Additionally, it can also be damaged by changes that take place in the glomerulus and the small arteries supplying the kidney. These changes occur in patients suffering from diabetes (Hypertension). Post-renal: Caused by an issue distal to the kidneys in the urinary tract. For example, an infection in the bladder travels upwards and causes the kidneys to fail. In Vasectomy, the ureters may be accidentally clipped instead of the vas deferans. Consequently, urine will build up and cause kidney failure. Measuring Urine Output can determine the extent of kidney failure Once again: Pre-renal failure: Does not permanently damage the kidney, but can cause diminished kidney function. Can be treated with relative ease. Dehydration, Hemorrhage, Sepsis, Heart Failure, Burns, Liver Failure Intrarenal failure: Involves conditions effecting the kidney directly. Cannot be cured but can be treated. Lack of blood supply to kidneys, Drug abuse or overdose, Infections, Inflammation in the glomerulus Postrenal failure: Obstruction of the urinary tract. Inflammation of prostate gland, Enlargement of prostate gland, Bladder or pelvic tumour, Kidney stones Some causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD) At the level of end stage kidney, the organ is unable to produce urine (therefore filtration is not working). At this stage, administering diuretics is not enough. The patient requires assistance in order to ensure proper kidney functioning. Dialysis or kidney transplant must be performed in order to ensure waste products are being removed from the blood stream. Polycystic Kidney Disease Tubules and the collecting duct of the kidney become dilated with cysts. These cysts block the nephron and stop urine production. Eventually, many of the nephrons will die off due to the blockage. This is a genetically recessive disease: Both parents must give a recessive trait in order to get the disease
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Since the disease is genetically linked, we can screen children to determine if they have the recessive trait.
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RENAL FAILURE - Renal Failure can be divided into three...

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