Renal Failure can be divided into three categories:
Caused by a factor outside of the kidney initially. Will effect other areas before
causing the kidney function to decrease.
Example: Dehydration, Loss of blood (If kidneys are not well perfused, tissue death
A disease effecting the kidney directly causes it to fail. For example,
primary renal disease may cause the kidney to fail.
Most kidney failure’s occur in this
Besides disease, the kidney can be damaged by changes in blood flow and
pressure. Additionally, it can also be damaged by changes that take place in the
glomerulus and the small arteries supplying the kidney. These changes occur in
patients suffering from diabetes (Hypertension).
Caused by an issue distal to the kidneys in the urinary tract. For example, an
infection in the bladder travels upwards and causes the kidneys to fail.
In Vasectomy, the ureters may be accidentally clipped instead of the vas deferans.
Consequently, urine will build up and cause kidney failure.
Measuring Urine Output can determine the extent of kidney failure
Does not permanently damage the kidney, but can cause diminished kidney function. Can
be treated with relative ease.
Dehydration, Hemorrhage, Sepsis, Heart Failure, Burns, Liver Failure
Involves conditions effecting the kidney directly. Cannot be cured but can be treated.
Lack of blood supply to kidneys, Drug abuse or overdose, Infections, Inflammation
in the glomerulus
Obstruction of the urinary tract.
Inflammation of prostate gland, Enlargement of prostate gland, Bladder or pelvic
tumour, Kidney stones
Some causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD)
At the level of end stage kidney, the organ is unable to produce urine (therefore filtration
is not working).
At this stage, administering diuretics is not enough. The patient requires assistance
in order to ensure proper kidney functioning.
Dialysis or kidney transplant must be performed in order to ensure
waste products are being removed from the blood stream.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Tubules and the collecting duct of the kidney become dilated with cysts. These cysts
block the nephron and stop urine production. Eventually, many of the nephrons will die off
due to the blockage.
This is a genetically recessive disease: Both parents must give a recessive trait in order
to get the disease