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Fundamental A, B, C, Chap 2

Fundamental A, B, C, Chap 2 - Fundamental A Substance...

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Fundamental A Substance – single pure, form of mater Physical properties – characteristic that we can observe or measure without changing the identity of the substance (appearance, texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility, polarity, etc.) Intensive property – independent of mass (color, temperature, density, viscosity, melting point, flammability) Extensive property – depend on mass (volume, energy) Chemical properties – ability of a substance to change into another substance (potential to ignite, potential to rust, etc.) Precise – measurement refers to how close repeated measurements are to one another Accuracy – series of measurement where the values are close to the true value Systematic error – error present in every one of a series of repeated measurement (speck of dust, environment, method) Random error – error varies at random, can average to zero (statistical fluctuations, limitations of device, drafts of air) Energy – measure of the capacity to do work, SI is the Joule Kinetic Energy – motion Potential Energy – position Gravitational and Coulombic Electromagnetic field – field produce by electronically charge object Force – influence that changes the state of motion of an object Acceleration – rate of change of velocity Speed – rate of change of position regardless of the direction of the motion Work – motion against an opposing force Fundamental B Atomic number, Z – number of protons Mass number, A- number of protons and neutrons Periods Groups Group 1 – Alkali metals Group 2 – Alkaline earth metals Group 3-11 – Transition metals Group 17 – Halogen Group 18 – Noble gases Metal, Nonmetal, Metalloid Ductile, malleable Fundamental C Cation Anion Molecular compound Ionic compound
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Chemical formula—smallest unit Molecular formula—exactly number of elements in single molecule of compound Monatomic Diatomic Polyatomic Oxoanions—polyatomic anion that contains oxygen Ions that elements form: For Cations: The outermost electrons or valence electrons are removed in the order np, ns, (n-1) d. Remember: In the d block, (n-1) d-orbitals are lower in energy than ns-orbitals. Thus, ns electrons are lost first before d electrons. For Anions: Nonmetals acquire electrons that results in formation of an octet of electrons in valence shell or until they have reached the next noble gas electron configuration Energetics of Ion Bond Formation Net lowering of energy below that of individual atoms, provided that the net attraction between ions is greater than the energy needed to make them. Energy required for formation of ionic bonds is supplied by the attraction between oppositely charged ions Interactions between Ions: Lattice Energy : Difference in energy between the ions packed together in a solid and the ions separated as a gas. Dependent on size and charge of atom
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Fundamental A, B, C, Chap 2 - Fundamental A Substance...

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