Chapter_1_-_Introduction

Chapter_1_-_Introduction - 1 Computer System Overview 1 1...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Computer System Overview 1 1 Introduction Computer System Overview Further reading: Chapter 1 Stallings Chapter 1.4 Tanenbaum Content and Questions • What are the components of a computer? • How does the CPU processes commands? • What is the purpose of Interrupts? • How to interact with other devices (I/O)? • How can different memory components be combined? • When will memory hierarchies work efficiently? 1 Computer System Overview 2 1 Computer System Overview 3 Basic Elements of a Computer System Processor Registers: access modes Typically two access modes: • User-visible registers – May be referenced by processor’s instruction set.  By both application and system programs – Enable Programmer/Compiler efficiently use the processor  e.g. assignment of variables to processors  minimize main-memory references by optimizing register use – Data and address Registers  Data, Index, Segments, Stack • Control and Status Registers – processor to control execution – operating-system to control the execution of programs 1 Computer System Overview 4 1 Computer System Overview 5 Processor Registers Types: Control and Status • Basic C&S registers: – Program Counter (PC)  Contains the address of an instruction to be fetched – Instruction Register (IR)  Contains the instruction most recently fetched – Program Status Word (PSW)  condition codes (result of computations, e.g. positive/negative/ zero result, overflow, …)  Interrupt enable/disable  Supervisor/user mode 1 Computer System Overview 6 Executing Programs • Relies on Instruction Cycle – program instructions are in memory of a computer system – CPU needs to fetch instructions – transfer instructions to processors registers 1 Computer System Overview 7 A closer-to-reality-view of today’s processors (a) A three-stage pipeline (b) A superscalar CPU 1 Computer System Overview 8 Instruction Cycle revisited • Processor fetches instruction from memory – Program counter (PC) holds address of instruction to be fetched next – PC is incremented after each fetch – Fetched instruction is placed in the instruction register • Types of instructions – Processor-memory – Processor-I/O – Data processing PC: 300 ⇒ fetch instruction 1940 1 Computer System Overview 9 Instruction Cycle revisited • Processor fetches instruction from memory – Program counter (PC) holds address of instruction to be fetched next...
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Chapter_1_-_Introduction - 1 Computer System Overview 1 1...

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