12 Bio Unit 2 - Chapter Two: Lactic Acid: - Excess buildup...

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Chapter Two: Lactic Acid: - Excess buildup mean that you have a problem in one of the systems (Krebs’s, ETC, glycolysis) - ETC is supposed to have a chain of proteins that have an efficient production of ATP, if one protein is defective it leads to a buildup of excess lactic acid instead of ATP It produces a huge number of mitochondria to make up for low energy yield - Simple mixture of vitamin C and vitamin D will help cure it Cellular Respiration: - Energy enables life, harness free energy from environment and convert it to useable forms and powers the endergonic processes of life. - Through photosynthesis photoautotroph - ’s (can build all organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules using light) such as green plants and photosynthetic microorganisms transform light into the chemical potential energy in glucose and other carbohydrates. o Self sufficient for energy needs - All other living things are heterotrophs, which rely on autotrophs for their energy needs. o Vast majority including animals, fungi and most protists and bacteria o Obtain energy through food chain, bodies of autotrophs o Virtually everything a heterotroph eats is alive - With exception of chemoautotrophs, all organisms use glucose as primary source of energy. o Through series of enzyme controlled redox reactions organisms break the covalent bonds in this molecule and rearrange them into new and more stable configurations - As with all exergonic processes the greater stability of the covalent bonds in the product results in the release of free energy. o One methods includes transfer of electrons from glucose to oxygen Glucose is oxidized to CO 2 and oxygen is reduced to water o C 6 H 12 O 6(AQ) +6O 2 - 6CO 2(G) + 6 H 2 O (L) +energy via heat and ATP - This process is known as aerobic respiration (oxygen used in process) o Each step catalyzed by specific enzyme (about 20 processes) o Equation is just a summary o Only shows initial reactants and final products o Similar to combustion of hydrocarbon fuel such as propane in gas BBQ o Oxygen is oxidizing agent - Carbon- Hydrogen bonds are non-polar, electron pairs shared equally by the two atoms - Overall, equation shows that 12 hydrogen atoms break away from glucose and attach to 6 oxygen molecules to become six water molecules. o This is called oxidations because H atoms carry electrons away from the carbon atoms in glucose to oxygen. o H atoms occupy closer range to O molecules than they did with glucose o Oxygen is much more electronegative than carbon, H atoms lose potential energy but increases in entropy which causes a decrease in free energy and overall exergonic process.
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o This process only accounts for half of combustion process, other half of oxygen moles go on to form a bond with carbon to make CO 2 Change is equivalent to C atoms giving up their electrons - Overall, the aerobic oxidation of glucose involves the movement of valence electrons from a higher free energy state in glucose to a lower free energy state in carbon dioxide
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12 Bio Unit 2 - Chapter Two: Lactic Acid: - Excess buildup...

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