Material of last week

Material of last week - Material of last week's discussion...

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Material of last week’s discussion session (Nov 5-6) (Taken from lecture slides) Types of Bonding: Ionic — complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another. Usually between a metal and non-metal. Covalent — some valence electrons shared between atoms. Usually between two or more non-metals. Most bonds are somewhere in between . Metallic bonding: Typical of pure metals. Some or all of the e- in the highest energy ( valence ) level are ionized from each atom. A piece of metal is a collection of cations that are sharing valence e- from all atoms . Lattice Energy The difference between EP of independent ions in gas phase and EP of ions in a crystal. Always a positive value. Lattice E = EP (gaseous ions) – EP (crystal ions) EP values are always neg. Since EP (crystal) is always more neg than EP (gas), lattice E is always a pos value . Four Steps to Derive Equation for Lattice E 1) Write equation for coulombic attraction E between two ions (neighboring ions of opposite charge). 2) Modify equation for a linear array of ions. i.e. To calculate the EP for a single ion by considering the attractive and repulsive effects of neighboring and more distant ions in a linear array.
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