Mesopotamia and Egypt

Mesopotamia and Egypt - FIRST CIVILIZATIONS China Middle...

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FIRST CIVILIZATIONS Middle East Egypt India China Central America Peru
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DEFINITION Large urban settlements (ie., cities) Varied and complex social structure Highly organized government Complex religious belief system presided over by professional priests
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MESOPOTAMIA Means “Land Between Two Rivers” Tigris on the northwest Euphrates on the southeast Southern most region of Mesopotamia was called “Sumer” Characterized by small, Neolithic Mesopotamia Sume r
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RISE OF SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION Popul ation explo
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CUNEIFORM WRITING Means “wedge-shaped” “Written” on clay tablets with wooden stylus Thousands of different characters which evolved over time. Most stood for objects but others represented abstract concepts Very difficult to master—took years and years of specialized training. Cuneiform writing was therefore not “democratic”— only a small elite had mastered and used it
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OTHER SUMERIAN ACHIEVEMENTS Brick architecture Bronze tools and weapons Engaged in trade with places as far away as Africa and Asia First money First schools (trained scribes and priests) First Literature Epic poem Wisdom literature
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GILGAMESH
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AKKAD Akkad was inhabited by a people who had migrated there from Arabia around 5000 BC. Lived a Neolithic lifestyle and had some trade contacts with Sumer Around 2300 BC they were united under the rule of a warrior-chieftain named Sargon, who then led them in a successful invasion of Sumer—he took over all the city- states there in a little Using Sumer as his power base, he then conquered rest of Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean coast of the Middle East—
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CULTURAL MISSIONARY Once he had taken over Sumer, Sargon and his people absorbed Sumerian civilization and became civilized themselves They then spread their adopted culture into new Middle Eastern regions when they conquered new territory Sargon was thus an unintentional cultural missionary
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POLITICAL EVOLUTION Sargon’s empire collapsed a few decades after his death in 2130 BC In the aftermath, the Sumerian city- state of Ur briefly dominated the region
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OLD BABYLONIAN EMPIRE Ur’s dominance came to an end when the city-state of Babylon seized control over most of the region Around 1800 BC City-state controlled by the Amorites Tribe from Arabia that had moved into Mesopotamia earlier
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SUMERIAN LEGACY During the centuries that followed, the Old Babylonian Empire would also collapse, setting a pattern of rising and falling empires that would characterize the region for the next 3000 years
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Dr.christopherguthrie during the Fall '10 term at Tarleton.

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Mesopotamia and Egypt - FIRST CIVILIZATIONS China Middle...

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