US16 Causes of Civil War

US16 Causes of Civil War - INTRODUCTION In 1846, the U.S....

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INTRODUCTION In 1846, the U.S. attacked Mexico, won an easy victory, and stripped her of her northern provinces Fifteen years later, the U.S. went to war again—but this time it was American against American The issue of slavery ultimately proved to be immune to the American spirit of compromise It would destroy the Whig Party, inflame sectional fears and hatreds, and finally lead to a bloody civil war Which did end slavery but which also cost 600,000 American lives
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MANIFEST DESTINY Powerful surge of expansionist energy during the early 1840s Western third of continental U.S. in foreign hands British claimed Pacific Northwest Mexico controlled the Southwest From Texas to California At the same time, much of best land within American borders was being taken up by expanding population Made wide open spaces of the Southwest and Far west more and more attractive to Americans
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U.S. obtained Pacific Northwest from Great Britain in 1845 through a combination of threats and compromise Dealings with Mexico were not as tranquil
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MEXICO Won independence from Spain in 1821 But remained socially and economically underdeveloped Had population less than 50% of the U.S. Had tradition of unstable government Population of northern provinces was only one percent of total population And few had much loyalty to Mexico
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TEXAS Especially troublesome were people who lived in Texas Most were Americans who had moved their after 1820 at request of Mexico In order to help settle and develop the almost empty province But they often defied efforts of Mexico to govern them
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SANTA ANNA General Santa Anna proclaimed himself dictator of Mexico in 1834 Tried to crack down on Texas settlers Included was a prohibition on slavery within the province In response, the Texans rose up in rebellion in order to break free of Mexican rule
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WAR OF INDEPENDENCE Texans suffered several serious defeats Alamo (1836) But they won the crucial battle of San Jacinto and achieved their independence Forced Santa Anna to sign treaty which set southern border of Texas at the Rio Grande 150 miles south of the old border of the province of Texas, which had been the Nueces River Mexican Congress therefore refused to ratify treaty
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TEXAS STATEHOOD Texas was not admitted into the Union as a state for 9 years (until 1845) Mexico continued to insist that Texas was a rebellious province and objected vehemently to Rio Grande boundary Successive presidential administrations hesitated to take an action that might provoke war Texas could have easily been divided into 3 or 4 new slave states Northern congressmen did not like this possibility and dragged their feat on the issue of Texas statehood
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JAMES A. POLK Democrat James Polk had swore during the campaign of 1844 to make Texas a state, regardless of what Mexico thought about it Once elected, he ordered army to guard
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US16 Causes of Civil War - INTRODUCTION In 1846, the U.S....

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