Reconstruction - ABRAHAM LINCOLN AND SLAVERY Did not go to...

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN AND SLAVERY Did not go to war against the South in 1860 to abolish slavery His primary goal was to preserve the Union However, average northern soldiers and northern public opinion did see abolition of slavery as a major goal of the war In addition, the freeing of slaves would deprive the South of valuable manpower in both military and civilian areas and thus cripple the Southern war effort For both emotional and practical reasons, the demand for the abolition of slavery grew in the North while the war was still going on
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LINCOLN ACTS Lincoln responded to public opinion by issuing Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 Freed all slaves in Union-occupied Southern territory Also had Congress ratify the 13 th Amendment in early 1865 Officially abolished slavery in the U.S.
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IMPORTANT QUESTIONS Abolition of slavery and military defeat of South raised new questions What to do with freed slaves? Should they be made full-fledged citizens or made a dependent class, free but not equal? What to do with defeated white southerners? They had technically committed treason Should they be treated as traitors or forgiven?
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TEN PERCENT PLAN Since Lincoln had always believed the prime purpose of the war had been to preserve the Union, he thought that, now that it was over, all effort should be made to restoring the Union and ending the bitterness and hatred of war years Wanted to be lenient on the defeated South Favored letting them reconstitute their state governments and pardoning all former Confederates except the highest leaders Embodied his lenient position in the so-called Ten Percent Plan
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PROBLEM Many Northerners did not like the Ten Percent Plan Every Southern state contained thousands of people who opposed the Confederacy-- Unionists Northerners wanted to reward Unionists and punish Rebels Were afraid ex-Rebels would take revenge on Unionists as soon as they had the chance Would also try to re- establish slavery and might even start a new civil war once they had regained strength
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NORTHERN OPINION Many Northerners did not want the South admitted as a full member of the Union as quickly or easily as Lincoln did Wanted the South to go through a period of reconstruction first A trial period in which the North would essentially control the South in order to make sure Southerners were sincere about re-establishing their loyalty to the Union before allowing Southern states to become free and equal members of the U.S .
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WADE-DAVIS BILL Congress thought Ten Percent plan was too lenient and passed its own alternative, the Wade- Davis Bill Made it difficult for southern states to organize new state governments Majority of adult white makes had to swear oath of allegiance to Union first Full citizenship denied to any man who had willingly served the Confederacy Lincoln vetoed the bill and, in response, Congress refused to implement Ten Percent Plan Result was stalemate
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