324 Evaluating Horse Feeds

324 Evaluating Horse Feeds - Horse Industry Handka...

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Unformatted text preview: Horse Industry Handka EVALUATING COMMERCIAL HORSE FEEDS Robert Mowrey, PhD North Carolina State Urzitviersig' Extension Horse Specialist Horse Commodity Coordinator There are approximately 2.500 feed mills regis tered in the United States With the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This total does not include mills that do nor use drugs in their formula feeds. Horses and pets account for approximately ten percent of the total commercial feed tonnage. Recently. many feed companies have recognized the growth and economic importance of the horse industry. Aggressive marketing campaigns have increased the use of commercial feeds by horse owners. Feed Labeling Regulations Labeling is required for all commercial feed prod ucts and is used as a method of COmrnunication between the feed manufacturer and purchasers or consumers. Feed labeling is controlled by regulatory agencies. Most state agencies subscribed to the Model Feed Bill. developed by the American Feed Control Officials (AFCO) and the American Feed Industry Association (AHA). The bill promotes uniformity in laws and regulations from state to state, thereby facilitating interstate trade of manufactured feeds. The Model Feed Bill includes definitions, registra- tion of brand feed names, labeling, etc. Labeling: - Identifies the product - Provides instructions on how to use « Identifies the use - Provides any cautions concerning use 3 1999 Amencan Youth Horse Council, Inc. label (tag) information includes: - Weight - Brand (trade) and company name — Product name - Directions for use - Guaranteed analysis (minimum and maximum) to support claimS - Feed ingredients (common name or collective term, collective terms are partially permitted in Florida, Hawaii, and California) - Precautionary statements - Name and mailing address of manufacturer Tags on medicated feed include in addition to the above: — Purpose statement (medicated, species intended, fed as a sole ration, continuously, specific period) - Caution statement (must be prominent on front) - Active drug ingredient(s) - Feed ingredients - Detailed use description Cusromized rations also should be accompa- nied by a tag, delivery slip, or other docu- ment with: - Name and address of manufacturer Spring. 1999 Horse Industry Handbook Table 1. Example of Collective Feed Terms by Ingredient Group Grain Producrs Animal Protein Products Barley, corn, oats, what, rice and rye Fish meal. hydrolyzed poultry feathers, meat meal, dried whole millc skimmed milk, dried whey Plant Protein Products CortonSeed meal, linseed meal. soybean meal, soybeans (heat procssed), yeast (cultured) Processed Gain By-producrs Brewers dried grains. distillers dried grains, corn gluten feed, wheat millings. bran (rice and wheat) Forage Producrs Alfalfa meal (dehydrated or sun-cured), grass hay (Species name included), lespedeza meal Roughage Products Apple products (dried), barley hulls, beet pulp (dried), hulls (oat, peanut and rice) Source: D. R. Kappa. 1992. Elements of nutrition: :1 primer for practitioners AAEP. 38th Proceedings. P, 669- 679. - Name and address of purchaser - Date of delivery - Product name - Trade name if any - Net weight of each commercial feed used in the mixture - DirectiOns for use Tags are required to be: - Attached to individual bags of feed - Available for inspection if sold in bulk Ingredient Listing Usually ingredients are listed starting with the item making up the largest percentage of the turc and continuing with those added in smaller quantities. Although human food items are nor- mally presented in a similar fashion, the Model Feed Bill does not specify this style and many states do not require this type of listing. States that do not require ingredient listings are: Virginia, Missouri and Oregon. Any change in the percentage order of ingredients would necessitate printing a new feed tag. Collective feed names are used to avoid preparation of new tags if one or more ingredients was discontinued (Table 1). When collective feed names are used. individual ingredients within a group cannot be listed on the tag. Collective feed names are used on feed tags when diets are developed based on least cost for- mulation, which ensures a consrant guaranteed analysis. Least cost diet formulation will select the most inexpensive ingredients to provide the collective feed name tag eliminates the necessity of printing a new feed tag to verify ingredient changes. Guaranteed analysis of feeds are listed as: - Minimum percentage of crude protein - Minimum percentage of crude fat HIH 791-2 Horse Industiy Handbook - percentage of crude fiber - Maximum percentage of ash Ash values are useful in providing a quick eStimate of whether excessive amounts of limestone or salt have been added to a feed. Limestone is one of the cheapest feed ingredients as compared to phosphorus, one of the most expensive. Minimum and maximum levels of (Ca) are there- fore very useful for mineral supplements, since inexpensive ingredients such as limestone could be used as a "filler". Mineral supplements and concentrate feeds containing greater than 52 per- cent total calcium, phosphorus and minerals must include the following minerals in the guaranteed analysis: - Minimum and maximum percentage of calcium (Ca) - Minimum and maximum percentage of phospho rus (P) ~ Minimum and maximum percentage of salt (NaCl) Commercial Feed Classes Commercial manufactured equine feeds are divid- ed into the following categories: - Textured concentrates (sweet) - Processed concentrates (pelleted or extruded) - Complete feeds - Supplements (protein, mineral, trace mineral and/0r vitamin) Textured concentrates, typically referred to as “sweet” feeds. are Whole grains mixed with molasses to improve palatabiliry. The grain may or may nor be processed: crimped, cracked, rolled or flaked. to improve digestibility. The grain mix may be fortified with a mineral, Vitamin and pro- tein pre-mix to pron'de all the necessary nutrients needed to balance the forage portion of the diet. Properly fortified concentrate mixes eliminate the need for the feeding of additional supplements. Table 2. FEED TAG EXAMPLE “Good Old Boy“ Horse Feed Guaranteed Analysis Crude Protein (minimum) 12.0% Crude Fat (minimum) 2.5% Crude Fiber (maximum) 14.0% Calcium (minimum) Calcium (maximum) Phosphorus (minimum) 0.80% 1.00% 45% Ingredients: Grain produCts, plant protein products, processed grain by-products. forage products. riboflavin, calcium pantothenate. niacin. Vitamin BIZ supplement. choline chloride, vitamin A palmitate. D activated animal sterol (source of vitamin D3), vitamin E supplement. methionine, menadione sodium bisulfate (source of vitamin K activity) animal fat (preserved with BHA), defluorinated phosphate. magne- sium sulfate. porassium sulfate salt, manganous oxide, iron carbonate, iron sulfate, copper oxide. cobalt carbonate. calcium iodate, zinc oxide, cane molasses, sodium selenite. Weight Loss Feed Company Lizard Lick, Any State. 05820 Net Weight shown on bag HIH 791-3 Horse Industry Handbook Pelleting and extruding are two methods of pro- cessing concentrate mixes to improve digestibili- ty, feed efficiency and intake. Pelleting eliminates fines and feed wastage which ensures a nutrient balanced feed. Extruded feeds are processed under extreme pressure which “explodes” the feed nugget, increasing its surface area and digestibility. Although both processing methods are expensive and increase production costs, the pelleting of a feed enables a manufacturer to more effecrively formulate least cost diets which ulti- mately reduces the overhead cost of pelleting as compared to extruded feeds. “Complete” feeds are a combination of concen- trates and forages into one product. Complete feeds are used when poor quality or no forages are available or medical conditions of the horse dictate that it not be fed hay or grazed on pasture. Fibrous feed such as beet pulp. chopped alfalfa hay, rice hulls and wheat middlings are used to elevate the fiber content of a complete feed. Due to the higher fiber content, complete feeds con- tain less energy than concentrate mixes. Protein, mineral, trace mineral and/or vitamin sup- plements are designed to be fed With concentrate mixes that are not fortified or when feeding poor quality forages. Feed Tag Evaluation Although feed tags provide limited information, they do serve a vital function. By law. feed com- panies are required to list ingredients contained in the feed, as well as the standard nutrient content (Table 2). In addition to the ingredients, feed manufacturers must display a minimum percent crude protein (CP), minimum percent fat and a maximum percent crude fiber (CF). Feed manu- facturers are required to list the percent calcium (Ca), given a minimum and maximum range. the minimum percent phosphorus (P) and the mum percent salt (NaCl) if the total of the three minerals exceed 5.5 percent of the grain (concen- trate) mix. All state Departments of Agriculture do random testing of manufactured feeds to ensure tag accuracy. Significant deviation from guaranteed analysis is ample justification for feed control officials to take action. Allowance for vari- ability in sampling and laboratory analysis is per- mitted. The North Carolina Department of Agriculture publishes an analysis of official feed samples, including violations in an annual feed report “The Bulletin”. Nutrient Evaluation In general, horse owners place unwarranted importance on the protein content of a feed. Feeds are quite often purchased solely on percent protein, with little or no concern for the other important nutrients. Crude protein is actually a calculated by measuring the nitrogen (N) content in a feedstuff. Protein is composed of a variety of nitrogencontaining amino acids organized in a building block fashion. Since the average nitrogen content of amino acids is 16 percent, multiplica- tion of the percent nitrogen measured by 6.25 will give the crude protein (C.P.) content. Table 5. Relationship of Crude Fiber to Ede Digestible Ene_rgx in Mixed Concentrate Feeds1 CM 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Digestible Enem’ Mcalng 1.62 1.55 1.45 1.35 1.25 1.15 1$ourcc2 Adapted from Stud Managems Handbook. Volume 18. 1983. Feedstufl’ evaluation and nutrient value for horses. D. G. Meadows, pages 262-266. HJH 791—4 Horse Industry Handbook UnfOrtunately, the crude protein content of a feed does not reflect the amount of protein actually digested and available to the horse. The digestible protein (D.P.) represents that por- tion of the crude protein which can actually be used by the horse. On average, the digestible pro- tein represents approximately 7'5 to 80 percent of the crude protein. Since the estimation of digestible protein content in feedStuffs is inaccu- rate, the National Research Council has recom- mended that horse rations be balanced on percent crude prOtein and percent lysine, an essential amino acid. Most commercial protein concentrates also list several of the essential amino acids, which the horse must obtain from its feed. Of the essential amino acids. lysine is the mosr limiting to young horses for grovnh and may be supplemented. As a horse matures, the lysine requirement decreases from .65 percent for a suckling to .55 percent for a weanling and .45 percent for a yearling. Supplemental lysine is not necessary for horses two years—of—age or older. Soybean meal. milk pro- tein and alfalfa are feed ingredients that are high in lysine. Generally, grains and grasses are low in lysine. Most commercial protein concentrates also contain a vitamin, and trace mineral premix. Such supplements are not necessary when feeding properly balanced concentrates with average to good quality forages. The percent fat or ether extract (EE) is the mea- sure of the non-carbohydrate portion of the feed. Fat is extremely dense in energy and contains approximately 2.25 times as much energy as car. bohydrate or protein. The fat level of most carbo— hydrate based concentrate mixes usually range from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 4 percent. “High” fat diets contain over % fat. Crude fiber is a meaSure of the bulk or fibrous portion of the grain mix consisting of mostly cellu- lose and lignin. Although horses digest cellulose quite well in the large intestine lignin is indi- gestible. Bacteria in the horse's large intestine can digest cellulose and produce by-products that are available to the horse. however, lignin is indi- gestible. The fiber content of grains range from 2 percent for the energy dense grains such as corn. up to 12 to 14 percent for the grains such as oats (Table 3). Feeds that are low in fiber tend to be more digestible with a higher energy content. Altering the fat or content of a concentrate will alter the energy content. The addition of fat, which contains 2.25 times more energy than the carbohydrates typically found in grain, will elevate the energy density or calories per pound of con- centrate. Conversely, the addition of minerals which contain no energy, lowers the caloric densi- ty of the concentrate mix. Properly formulated diets will have the ratio of nutrients adjusted to maintain a constant nutrient to calorie ratio. Ideally, salt should be present in concentrate mixes at the rate of one half percent for idle, non- working horses and one percent for working hors— es. Salt should always be supplemented free choice. A great deal of variability exists among most com- mercial feeds and supplements in the calcium, phosphorus and salt levels. The calcium and phosphorus content will vary depending upon the age and produCtion status of the horses being fed. Although the quantity of calcium and phosphorus will vary, the ratio of the two minerals should remain within 1:1:1 up to 2:1 parts calcium to phosphorus in the total ration. Feed tags typically do nor disclose trace mineral and vitamin content. Contact the feed manufac- turer to determine the level of these nutrients in a commercial feed. Feed manufacturers may pro vide either a laboratory feed analysis or an estimat- ed analysis based on the feed ingredient formula. The laboratory analysis is a more accurate evalua- tion. Potential Toxic Problems Most horse owners tend to relate health and per- formance related problems to improperly manu- factured or preserved feeds. However, inadvertent feed manufacturing problems are rare. Most prob lems result from mixing horse feed immediately after the equipment was used for non-equine diets that contained medications and growth pro- m0tants n0t approved for equine use. Monensin, HIH 791-5 Horse Industry Handbook a growth promotant supplemented in cattle feed- lot diets is toxic when fed to horses. Stringent quality control measures by feed manufacturers have made improperly manufactured feed situa- tions less frequent. The presence of mycotoxins, produced by molds in grains is a problem that equally confronts feed manufacturers, farmers and horse owners. Mycotoxins develop in feedstuffs used in commer- cial feeds or home mixes, due to Stress during the growing season (drought) or improper storage. Commercial feed companies add mold inhibitors to concentrate mixes to preserve feeds and increase the shelf-life of the product. However, mold inhibitors do nor reduce or eliminate mold already present. If mold-contaminated grains are originally used in a concentrate formulation, the mold and potential toxins vw'll remain intact in the presence of a mold inhibitor. If feeds are mishan- dled on the farm through poor storage or left in feed mangers, feed may mold regardless of the presence of mold inhibitors. Moldy feed should not be offered to horses. Recommendations Identify the nutrient(s) of major concern for your horse=s needs. Purchase the most balanced feed that meets these needs. Then follow feeding directions! Do nor attempt to reduce feed costs by diluting a balanced concentrate mix or supple- ment with another cheaper feedstuff or product. Such practices will typically dilute out the bal- anced nutrient content of the original product, reduce the quality of the diet and may create nutrient deficiencies and interactions that could be detrimental to your horse. HIH 791-6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course ANSCI 324 taught by Professor Donhenneke during the Spring '12 term at Tarleton.

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324 Evaluating Horse Feeds - Horse Industry Handka...

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