324 Minerals

324 Minerals - MINERALS Even Though minerals are a very...

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Unformatted text preview: MINERALS Even Though minerals are a very small parT of The equine dieT, They play a criTical role in The healTh of The horse. Minerals are involved in: > Acid-base balance > FormaTion of sTrucTural componenTs > EnzymaTic cofacTors > Energy meTabolism Minerals are inTegral parTs of: > ViTamins > Hormones > Amino acids MosT necessary minerals come from The forages and concenTraTes. Mineral conTenT of feedsTuffs and The availabiliTy of individual minerals depends on soil mineral concenTraTions, planT species, planT maTuriTy, and harvesTing Techniques. MACROMINERALS: Those required in relaTively large amounTs (g/kg feed). Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, poTassium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur Involved in sTrucTure, acid—base and fluid balance, nerve conTracTion, muscle conTracTion. CALCIUM: ~99°/o of The body's Ca is found in The TeeTh and bones FUNCTIONS: muscle conTracTions; cell membrane inTegriTy and Transport blood coagulaTion, and regulaTion of many enzymes. Ca blood cancenfrafion is CRITICAL to life! The skeleTon serves as a reservoir for blood Ca and Ca is removed from The bone as needed by The physiological funcTions of The body. PHOSPHORUS: a major consTiTuenT of bone (bone conTains ~ Twice as much Ca as P). FUNCTIONS: energy meTabolism -) required for formaTion of ATP: needed To synThesize phospholipids, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) and phosphoproTeins. Blood concenTraTions of P are quiTe variable. P is found primarily in The bone OR in The cell. MovemenT of P from bone To cell is relaTively slow. CA:P RATIO: Ca and P are integrated in their functions and ABSORPUON/ Intake of Ca and P must be adequate, but absorption is dependent on the ratio in the diet. > If Ca intake is LESS than P, Ca absorption is impaired. Even if the diet contains adequate Ca, excess P may result in impaired skeletal structures and reduced physiological activities. > Grains are naturally higher in P than Ca (1:3). Thus it is easy to feed excess P when utilizing high amounts of concentrates in the diet. > Forages usually are higher in Ca than P (grass hay 2:1: alfalfa 10:1). Providing adequate forage can offset the high P content in grains. > Ideally, the ration should be between 15:1 and 3:1 0 The growing horse ratio should be kept between 1.5—2.0:1 outside these levels, skeletal structure can be severely influenced. 0 Adult horses can tolerate ratios 6-10:1. Above those levels, P absorption is diminished and bone loss occurs resulting in increased incidences of fractures. In calculating Ca:P ratio, the TOTAL DIET must be taken into account. ELECT ROLYTES: Na, Cl, K The electrolytes are essential for add—base ba/ance and osmotic pressure (fluid maintenance). Deficiencies in the electrolytes creates dehydration (increased blood thickness, increased acid buildup in blood and tissues, decreased gastric motility, etc.). Supplementation of heavy sweating horses may be needed. Potassium = K‘: > Major intracellular cation > Most quantitatively important ion involved in neuromuscular excitability > SOURCE: Most forages are high in K; grains are low Sodium = N‘: > Major extracellular cation > Critical for function of central nervous system > Needed to create generation of action potentials in excitable tissues (muscle) Transportation of substances (glucose) across cell membranes SOURCE: Most feedstuffs are very low in Na. Supplementation either in the concentrate or free choice is needed. VV Excess/Toxicifl: Potential Se toxicity is also area specific, but these areas of high Se soil levels are very specific and isolated. Forage and grains grown in these regions can create toxicity problems and are used for cattle feed. Accumulation Toxic/Q: A relatively new problem to the horse industry is accumulation toxicity. As stated above, most commercial feeds have added Se to meet the horse's needs. In addition, many feed supplements also contain added Se. Adding supplements to feed, especially if the forage also has good Se content, can lead to a 5e overload situation. SYMPTOMS: > White spots in hair coat -) bald spots > Soft hooves > Decreased energy, incoordination, lethargy > Severe cases can lead to sloughing of the hooves TREATMENT: Treatment involves reducing the selenium level in the feed to minimum amounts. This is not easy as almost all commercial rations contain added selenium, and most forages also contain Se. Depending on the Se content of the diet, reduction of Se levels in the animal to below toxic levels may take several months. Some horses will NOT recover. ...
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324 Minerals - MINERALS Even Though minerals are a very...

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