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Unformatted text preview: 2. Physical environment – environmental factors beyond human control – climate, heat, rainfall, etc. 3. Fixed resources and management – size of operation, feeding program, health care, etc. 4. Economics – costs vs. returns. ** 2, 3, 4 are all environmental effects on phenotype. It should be clear that the components within a system interact with each other to influence the phenotype/performance of the individual animals. Therefore, another element is added to the formula for phenotype: P = G + E + GxE Genotype by Environment Interactions:...
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- Fall '11
- Evolution, Natural environment, select management schemes