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Unformatted text preview: LECTURE #12 o Blending vs. particulate hypotheses of inheritance o Character, trait, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype, genotype o Monohybrid cross: P, F1, F2 generations o 4-part model to explain 3:1 phenotype ratio Alternate versions of genes ( alleles) 1 form from each parent Dominant/recessive forms Two forms segregate during gamete formation o Testcrosses (AA x aa aa or Aa) o Law of independent assortment from dihybrid cross o Probability “AND” – multiply “OR” – add LECTURE #13 o Many genetic disorders are inherited in a recessive manner (albinism, CF) o Recessively inherited disorders show up only in individuals homozygous for the allele o Carriers are heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele but are phenotypically (appear to be) normal o Autosomal chromosomes are non-sex chromosomes o Autosomal recessive genetic disorders (aa) Cystic fibrosis (mucus buildup in internal organs) Sickle-cell anemia o (consanguineous) mating between relatives/same lineage increase probability of genetic disease LECTURE #14 o Hereditary information is encoded in chemical language of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and reproduced in all cells of your body (except red blood cells which have no nuclei) DNA is a polymer of nucleotides, each consisting of 3 components: a nitrogenous base, a sugar (“deoxy-ribose”), and a phosphate group o Pathogenic: capable of causing disease o Phage: virus that infects bacteria o Proportions: #A = #T, #G = #C in all species o J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick deduce structure of DNA as double helix (twisted ladder) Sugar-phosphate backbone Nitrogenous base pairs DNA double-helix follows right-hand rule o Purines: A and G (2 rings) o Pyrimidines: C and T (1 ring) o Nucleotides are bonded together by phosphodiester bonds o DNA RNA Protein o In DNA replication, the parent molecule unwinds, and 2 new daughter strands are built based...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BILD 1 taught by Professor Boulanger during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.
- Winter '08