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CMST_1150_-_Exam_3_Review[final] - NO NEED TO READ CHAPTER...

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NO NEED TO READ CHAPTER 8 - For Exam Three Only Chapters 3 & 5 Exam 3 Review Perception (K. Filbel lecture; Wood ch. 3) 1. Know the definition/conception of the following: a. Perception (know the 3 stages) i. Perception : the process by which we notice and make sense of experience and stimuli around us. Our perceptions reflect our individual interest and experiences ii. Perception is an active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities iii. We select certain things to notice, and then organize and interpret what we have selectively noticed iv. Perception shapes our understanding of others’ communication and the choices we make in our own communication v. Communication influences our perceptions of people and situations vi. Three processes of perception blend into one another – each process affects the other two: (know in order) Selection Organization Interpretation b. Selective exposure/selective attention i. We can’t attend to everything in our environment because far too much is there, and most of it isn’t relevant to us at any given time ii. Some qualities of external phenomena draw our attention – things that STAND OUT iii. Notice what matters to us iv. Change compels attention v. We deliberately influence what we notice by talking to ourselves – intrapersonal! Ex. We remind ourselves to stay alert when we are driving because we are tired. vi. Education is a process of learning to name and pay attention to things we haven’t previously noticed. Ex. on-the-job training you learn what you are expected to notice and do. vii. Ex: Oasis phenomena – when want something bad enough, may perceive if not there c. Constructivism/Cognitive schemata i. We organize our perceptions in meaningful ways; we don’t perceive randomly! ii. Constructivism : a theory that holds that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called cognitive schemata iii. We rely on four schemata to make sense of phenomena:
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Prototypes Personal Constructs Stereotypes Scripts d. Prototypes i. Definition: Knowledge structures that define the clearest or most representative examples of some category ii. For example: you probably have a prototype of a great teacher, or true friend. iii. A prototype is an ideal, or best example, of the category. Ex. Jane represents confidence. We classify people by category by asking which of our prototypes they most closely resemble. iv. Allow us to group people, events, and situations into broad categories e. Personal constructs i. Definition: Mental yardsticks that allow us to measure people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judgment ii. Examples: intelligent vs. unintelligent, kind vs. not kind, trustworthy vs. not trustworthy iii. Allow us to make more detailed assessments of particular qualities of phenomena we perceive iv. We assess people according to the constructs we use, not according to all the constructs that could be used v. We man not perceive qualities that are not highlighted by the
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CMST_1150_-_Exam_3_Review[final] - NO NEED TO READ CHAPTER...

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