Lecture 9 and 10 Carbs - Carbohydrates are more than pasta...

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Carbohydrates are more than pasta Stryer Chapter 11
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Energy source in food One of the 4 major classes of biomolecules: w/ proteins, nucleic acids, lipids Makes up most of organic matter on earth Energy stores, metabolic intermediates Structure: DNA, RNA (ribose in backbone) Structure: cell walls of bacteria/plants/cartilage (oligosaccharides) Linked to proteins and to lipids Carbohydrates are:
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The simplest carbohydrates are: 3 carbon sugars - C 3 H 6 O 3 The general formula is: (CH 2 O) n Chapter 11 - Carbohydrates R-configuration S-configuration
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Need-To-know Sugars
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D-glyceraldehyde has the R configuration Not Chiral Different Representations of a Triose Fischer Projections
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1 2 3 4 D The D-Aldoses Epimers
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1 2 3 4 The D-Ketoses
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Formation of Hemiacetals and Hemiketals: Cyclization of pentose and hexose sugars
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These are anomers Cyclization of Glucose to form Pyranose Rings - Anomers 33% 65% 1% 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 6 4
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1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 5 6 4 1 1 2 4 5 3 RNA DNA Cyclization of sugars to form furanose rings
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Furanoses and Pyranoses 5-membered ring furanose 6-membered ring pyranose
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Need-to-Know Relationships for Sugars
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Axial substituents can have more steric hindrance than equatorial substituents β -D-Glucose Talose Less likely
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Quite stable The glycosidic bond and modified sugars
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N- and O-linked Sugars (N) (S)
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Disaccharides are linked by O-Glycosidic bonds α -1,4-Glycosidic bond β -1,4-Glycosidic bond α -1,4-Glycosidic bond
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Glycogen is the major form of stored glucose in mammals, and it has a branched structure α -1,4 Glycosidic
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has a different structure than glycogen
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Lecture 9 and 10 Carbs - Carbohydrates are more than pasta...

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