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Lecture 1 Gluconeogenesis - Contact Information Dr Anne...

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Contact Information Dr. Anne Vojtek Department of Biological Chemistry [email protected] Office hrs: Tuesdays 2-3 (starting 10/18), 3301C MSRB III Teaching Assistant: Mike Howard [email protected] Office hrs: Wednesdays 10:15-12:15, 4400 Chemistry
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Overview Topics Gluconeogenesis Chapter 16.3, 16.4 Glycogen Metabolism Chapter 21 Fatty Acid Metabolism Chapter 12.1-2, 22 Lipids and Steroids Chapter 26 Membranes Chapters 12, 13 Signal Transduction Chapter 14 Protein Turnover and AA Catabolism Chapter 23 Synthesis of Amino Acids Chapter 24
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Biochemistry 415/515 Gluconeogenesis Chapter 16 Berg • Tymoczko • Stryer
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How much glucose do we need? Most tissues can burn other energy fuels such as fatty acids but there is nevertheless a requirement for glucose Body needs : ~160 g/day Glucose is used as the primary energy source in brain (~120 g/day) and in red blood cells
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Many sources of glucose Dietary intake : Reserve : Variable but generally high (Mostly as sucrose and fructose; 1 can of soda: 30-50 g sugar) 20 g in body fluids 190 g stored as glycogen Make it : gluconeogenesis
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From Marks’ Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach (2005) Smith, Marks and Lieberman p.575 Why synthesize glucose when we can just eat it? Dietary glucose is very short-lived
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Overview of the gluconeogenic pathway pyruvate glucose oxaloacetate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate glycerol subset of amino acids lactate, some amino acids (ala) Definition : Synthesis of glucose from compounds other than carbohydrates non-carbohydrate precursors: Lactate (from glycolysis) amino acids (from protein) glycerol (from fat)
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Precursors and their entry points into gluconeogenesis proteins amino acids oxaloacetate pyruvate (diet) triacylglycerid es (fat) glycerol fatty acids DHAP X glucose Alanine is the major gluconeogenic amino acid alanine pyruvate I. II. III. Lactate dehydrogenase (skeletal muscle)
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Glycolysis Is gluconeogenesis simply glycolysis in reverse? Gluconeogenesis
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Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis G= -33.5 kJ/mol G= -22.2 kJ/mol G= -16.7 kJ/mol
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Glycolysis Is gluconeogenesis simply glycolysis in reverse? NO the irreversible steps of glycolysis must be bypassed Gluconeogenesis Bypass 1 Bypass 2 Bypass 3
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Phosphoenolpyruvate is formed from pyruvate in two reactions by way of oxaloacetate Step 1. Conversion (carboxylation) of pyruvate to oxaloacetate Enzyme : pyruvate carboxylase (mitochondrial enzyme) Bypass 1
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