Final Exam Review - Final Exam Review Smallpox Variolation:...

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Final Exam Review Smallpox Variolation: deliberately infect somebody with smallpox, develop a mild form of smallpox and acquire immunity to it Edward Jenner: discovered vaccination by inducing cowpox. Introduce antigen into the body, bind to cell membrane of certain cells in the immune system. Through transfer of information, these infected cells will give it to another cell (B cells) which will produce antibodies. These antibodies will kill the actual virus if introduced to host. Viruses Diverse in size shape and constitution. Outside made out of proteins (capsid), can be made up of multiple types of proteins. Inside capsid is genome. Nonenveloped viruses are viruses experienced in the open outside. Enveloped viruses are viruses that have submerged themselves in host cell membrane. Hides effectively from immune system because immune system does not recognize the host cell membrane as foreign. Enveloped viruses go on to infect more cells. Single stranded, double stranded, positive sense (genome sequence is same as viral mRNA), negative sense (genome sequence is complementary to viral mRNA) How viruses infect cells and lytic growth: virus particle makes contact with cell membrane replication of viral genome production of viral proteins assembly of a new generation of virus particles exit from infected cell, which kills the cell Lytic growth : (lysis=to break up), virus goes in, replicates, and blows cell up Lysogenic growth : DNA virus goes directly into genome (if RNA virus, gets reversed transcribed into DNA and gets inserted into genome) and just sits there. Upon cell division, virus also gets copied until something triggers the virus. This is significant, because it allows the virus to stay with the host for life. Can affect germ line and stay with a population until activated. Influenza Spread through droplets (coughing, sneezing, etc.). Huge diversity in flu virus caused by: accumulation of point mutations genetic recombinations (reassortment): different kind of mixing genetic information Severe outbreaks associated with successful host switching (switching between bird, pig and human hosts, causes diverse strains of H1N1 which is why a flu shot is needed every year) Creation of flu vaccine: chicken eggs injected with different strains of viruses that the vaccine will be against. Embryo develops and develops virus in lungs, crack egg open and extract virus from eggs.
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HIV Enveloped Retrovirus: a RNA virus that has to be reverse transcribed into DNA then inserted into host chromosome (genome). Inside the capside, there are the enzymes (RNA and reverse transcriptase). Once entered into cell, enzyme can begin working. On the inside of the capside, there are these enzymes, reverse transcriptase (makes DNA copies of the RNA, called cDNA, and injects this into nucleus of host cell and then into genome), and RNA (which acts like the DNA of the virus). The enveloped HIV virus targets specific immune cells: CD4 receptors (T cells): have CD4
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BIO 171 taught by Professor Josephinekurdziel during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Final Exam Review - Final Exam Review Smallpox Variolation:...

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