18 - 10/25/11 The Prisoner’s Dilemma The...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/25/11 The Prisoner’s Dilemma The Prisoner’s Dilemma You and a partner commi;ed a crime…and were caught. I’ll make you a deal… Form groups of 4. If you confess and your partner stays quiet, I’ll let you go free and sentence your partner to 10 years. A prisoner But if you stay quiet and your partner confesses, your partner goes free and you get 10 years. If you both confess…I’ll just split the difference and give you both 5 years. B prisoner If you both stay quiet…I’ll sentence you both to 6 months for geCng on my nerves… Prisoner 1 Prisoner 2 Outcome The Prisoner’s Dilemma A prisoner self ­interest vs. group ­interest B prisoner What will my partner do? What should I do? stay quiet What should I do? confess What will my partner do? stay quiet confess 6 months 0 10 years 5 years stay quiet 6 months 0 stay quiet confess 10 years 5 years confess What is Ethics About? •  Main QuesOon—How should we live? Ethics Engineering 100:800 L. Meadows –  What is valuable? –  What kind of people should we be? What sort of character traits should we develop? –  What should we do? Which sorts of acOons or policies are right or wrong, good or bad? with help from Jeremy Guest, Amanda Roth, Warren Herrold, & Steve Campbell 1 10/25/11 Ethics Ethics •  The branch of philosophy dealing with values relaOng to human conduct with respect to the rightness and wrongness of acOons and the goodness and badness of moOves and ends •  A system or set of moral principles •  The rules of conduct recognized with respect to a parOcular class of human acOons or governing a parOcular group, culture, etc. •  The branch of philosophy dealing with values relaOng to human conduct with respect to the rightness and wrongness of acOons and the goodness and badness of moOves and ends •  A system or set of moral principles •  The rules of conduct recognized in respect to a parOcular class of human acOons or governing a parOcular group, culture, etc. What you can do vs what you should do… Ethical Thought theory •  Two important features of ethical thought: –  Ethical thought is pracOcal: ethical quesOons are about what to do –  Ethical thought requires imparOality engineering code of ethics •  The Basic idea: Ethical deliberaOon requires one to look beyond one’s own interests/perspecOve and consider the interests/perspecOves of others. ethics in pracMce Ethical Theory theory consequences engineering code of ethics rights/duMes ethics in pracMce ConsequenOalist Ethical Theories  ­ UMlitarianism  ­ Egoism  ­ Hedonism  ­ etc. Deontological Ethical Theories  ­ Golden Rule  ­ KanMan Ethics  ­ Natural Rights Theory  ­ etc. 2 10/25/11 UMlitarian Ethics – the right acMon is the one which yields the greatest total well ­being (where everyone’s well ­being receives equal weight). the principle of uMlity – decisions should be made based on what is best for everyone concerned (governs all acOons). UMlitarian Ethics – the right acMon is the one which yields the greatest total well ­being (where everyone’s well ­being receives equal weight). the principle of uMlity – decisions should be made based on what is best for everyone concerned (governs all acOons). happiness vs. unhappiness happiness vs. unhappiness www.wikipedia.com pleasure vs. pain acOons are judged right and wrong solely by their consequences. www.wikipedia.com pleasure vs. pain Jeremy Bentham 1748 ­1832 Spock acOons are judged right and wrong solely by their consequences. Weaknesses of UOlitarianism Weaknesses of UOlitarianism •  Equality: Utilitarianism values only total utility; the distribution doesn t matter. •  Equality: Utilitarianism values only total utility; the distribution doesn t matter. Utility Utility 1 2 3 4 5 6 People Weaknesses of UOlitarianism •  Equality: Utilitarianism values only total utility; the distribution doesn t matter. 1 consequences rights/duMes 2 3 4 5 6 People 3 4 5 6 People Ethical Theory Utility 1 2 ConsequenOalist Ethical Theories  ­ Egoism  ­ UOlitarianism  ­ Hedonism  ­ etc. Deontological Ethical Theories  ­ Golden Rule  ­ KanOan Ethics  ­ Natural Rights Theory  ­ etc. 3 10/25/11 Deontological Theories •  Deontology: what determines whether an acOon is right or wrong is the kind of acOon and/or the intenOons of the agent doing the acOon –  kind of acOon  one that violates or respects rights www.wikipedia.com The Golden Rule The Idea of a Right” •  NegaOve and PosiOve Rights –  NegaOve right: a right to be led alone in some manner •  E.g. a right to life  obligaOon not to kill* –  PosiOve right: a right to be given something •  E.g. a right to health care  an obligaOon to be given healthcare* *  NoBce, for every right, there is a corresponding obligaBon or duty KanMan Ethics – there is a single moral obligaMon, the Categorical ImperaMve, that is derived from duty. “Do not tf yanother eliever ddnMl he dyour o “Hurt no io hateful twhat its uo not tyourself “None ot oou is ai n o you, hat you o esires “What s thers nto ays isagreeable t “do u b others… for his ou would have tmarmful.” hyou.” as y brother what he desires fnto imself.” would find hem do u or fellow h an.” yourself.” categorical imperaMves – principles that are intrinsically valid, that must be obeyed. for example: do not lie reciprocity www.wikipedia.com Immanuel Kant 1724 ­1804 “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same Ome will that it should become a universal law.”  ­ Immanuel Kant Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (www.wikipedia.com) But what about…the inquisi&ve murderer? where is Edgar? What do I say? Why Favor a Rights ­Based Theory Over ConsequenOalism? •  Rights are very strong claims and so bejer capture our intuiOve views about the sancOty of human life, dignity, bodily autonomy. –  e.g. Organ ­Farming: Kill 1 to Save 5 he’s down the hall. truth he’s out of town. none of your beez ­wax. lie neither •  Rights View: Killing Sally violates her right to life. It is morally impermissible to kill her. •  UOlitarianism: Killing Sally maximizes uOlity. It is morally permissible (even required!) to kill her. 4 10/25/11 Some Problems •  Are rights claims absolute? If not, how strong are they exactly? –  e.g. Sarah Connor: Kill 1 to Save All •  What do we do when rights conflict with one another?   What is the basis for rights ­holding? (Usually: personhood, raOonality, autonomy) –  But then what about disabled humans, human babies, non ­human animals, species, ecosystems, etc.? Value Theory •  A value theory makes claims about what things in the world have value. •  Things that have value are valuable in themselves. –  They matter. They deserve respectful treatment. –  Ought to be valued (promoted, protected, cherished...) Anthropocentrism: Sentientism: All and only humans have value. All and only senOents have value. PLANTS PLANTS SENTIENT HUMANS & ANIMALS HUMANS ANIMALS 29 ECOSYSTEMS NONSENTIENT ANIMALS ECOSYSTEMS 30 5 10/25/11 More -isms! •  Biocentric Individualism: All and only living things have value. •  Environmental Individualism: All and only natural individuals (humans, animals, plants, soil, mountains, rivers, etc.) have value. •  Species-Centered Holism: All and only species have value. •  Ecosystemic Holism: All and only ecosystems have value. 31 The Prisoner’s Dilemma self ­interest vs. group ­interest A prisoner What should you do? Golden Rule Ethics – keep quiet KanOan Ethics – keep quiet UOlitarian Ethics – keep quiet Ethical Egoism – Let’s keep in mind that we were talking about ethical theory. confess! B prisoner Hopefully… you won’t meet an inquiring murderer… you won’t commit a crime… As engineers, you will have your own set of ethical challenges… …and staying quiet may be exactly what you CANNOT do. theory engineering code of ethics hjp://www.Ome.com/ ethics in pracMce 6 10/25/11 Professionalism – Not Just a Job •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Specialized Knowledge SophisOcated skills Use of judgment Exercise of discreOon Extensive formal educaOon Not rouOne  ­ can’t mechanize Standards of admission and conduct Significant public good results from the pracOce Engineering Code of Ethics Typical Problems Facing Engineers •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Safety ConfidenOality and Proprietary InformaOon Conflict of Interest Bribery Environmental Ethics Computer Ethics Professional Rights –  Engineers and the Defense Industry •  Research and ExperimentaOon Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duOes, shall: Preamble Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty, imparOality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protecMon of the public health, safety, and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct. 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duOes, shall: Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duOes, shall: 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. 7 10/25/11 Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Engineers shall: Engineers shall: 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Engineers shall: Engineers shall: 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Fundamental Canons (NSPE) Engineers shall: Engineers shall: 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. 1.  Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2.  Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3.  Issue public statements only in an objecOve and truthful manner. 4.  Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5.  Avoid decepOve acts. 6.  Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputaOon, and usefulness of the profession. 8 10/25/11 But I’m just a student/intern What problems could possibly come up? 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course ENGR 100 taught by Professor Winarsky/hildinger during the Fall '07 term at University of Michigan.

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